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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the posterior cervical triangle bound by?
trapezius
sternocleidomastoid
clavicle
What is containned in the posterior cervical triangle?
spinal accessory nerve
cervical plexus
brachial plexus
external jugular vein
subclavian, transverse cervical, suprascapular arteries
What is the anterior cervical triangle bound by?
sternocleidomastoid
mandible
midline
Where is the accesory nerve located, and what does it innervate?
located along levator scapulae and deep trapezius
innervates trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles
What are the branches of the superficial and deep cervical plexus?
superficial (great auricular, transverse cervical, supraclavicular, and lesser occipital)
deep (ansa cervicalis, phrenic nerve)
What do the nerves of the deep cervical plexus innervate?
ansa cervicalis (infrahyoid muscles)
phrenic nerve (runs over scalenus anterior and innervates diaphram)
What nerves innervate the digastric and hyoid muscles?
posterior digastric and stylohyoid (facial nerve)
anterior digastric and mylohyoid (trigeminal)
What is the structure of the trachea?
begins at inferior border of cricoid cartilage ends at primary bronchi
stays open by C-shaped hyaline cartilage
What is the structure of the esophagus, what nerves innervate it?
muscular digestive tube from pharynx to stomach
innervated by sympathetic trunk
What is the structure and function of the thyroid gland?
endocrine gland secreting thyroxine and thyrocalcitonin for metabolic rate
isthmus overlies tracheal rings
What is the structure and function of the parathyroid glands?
2 superior and 2 inferior small endocrine glands
secrete parathyroid hormone for calcium metabolism
What is the structure of the carotid sheath?
contains common and internal carotid arteries, internal jugular vein, and vagus
does not contain sympathetic trunk
What is the structure of the common carotid artery?
arises from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right and aortic arch on the left
divides into internal and external branches
external divides into superior thyroid, ascending pharyngeal, occipital, lingual, facial, posterior auricular, maxillary, and superficial temporal arteries
What is the function of the carotid sinus?
barorecetor
innervated by the cartid sinus nerve of vagus
What are the sensory and motor nerves of the face?
motor facial nerves
sensation trigeminal nerves
What vessels are located in the face?
facial artery (inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, angular artery)
facial vein (corresponding to arteires, drains into internal jugular)
What is the structure of the scalp?
skin, connective tissue, aponeurosis, loose connective tissue, pericramium
trigeminal nerves
loose connective tissue communicated with dranial dural venous sinuses by veins
What are the muscles and nerves of the infraorbital fossa?
muscles of mastication (massetor, temporalis , medial (close) and lateral (opens) pterygoid)
mandibular nerve
maxillary artery
What is the structure of the maxillary artery?
deep auricular, anterior tympanic, inferior alveolar, deep temporal, middle meningeal, buccal branches
What is the structure of the middle meningeal artery?
from maxillary enters cranial cavity by foramen ovale
What is structure of the infeiror alveolar artery?
enters the manfibular canal and supplies the lower teeth and chin
gives off mylohyoid nerve for digastric and mylohoid muscles
What is the structure of the mandibular nerve?
inferior alveolar, lingual, buccal, deep temporal
What is the structure of the lingual nerve?
joined by chorda tymapni to submandibular ganglion and anterior 2/3 of tongue (facial)
What is the structure and function of the parotid gland?
secrete large amounts of water saliva
stimulated by parasympathetic glosopharyngeal
What is the reflex arcs of the pupillary light reflex?
optic nerve mediates afferent limb
parasympathetic fibers in oculomotr nerve mediate efferent limb
What are the reflex arcs of the corneal (blink) reflex?
ophthalmic nerve mediates afferent limb by nasociliary branch
facial nerve mediates efferent limb
What is the reflex arc of the sneeze reflex?
maxillary nerves mediate afferent limb
vagus nerve mediates efferent limb
irritation of nasal mucosa
What is the reflex arc of the jaw jerk relfex?
mandibular nerve mediates afferent and efferent nerves
What is the reflex arc of the gag reflex?
glossopharyngeal nerve mediates afferent limb
vagus nerve mediates efferent limb
What is the reflex arc of the cough reflex?
vagus nerve mediate afferent and efferent limbs
irritation of bronchial mucosa
What is the structure of the intracranial dural venous sinuses?
superior sagittal sinus (falx cerebri)
inferior sagittal sinus (falx cerebri, joined by straight sinus)
sinus confluence
cavernous sinus
transeverse sinus
sigmoid sinus
internal jugular vein
What is the structure of the cavernous sinus?
lateral to sella turcica
communicates with ophthalmic vein, pterygoid venous plexus, facial vein
middle wall (abducens nerve and internal carotid)
lateral wall (oculomotor, trochlear, ophthalmic, maxillary nerve)
What is the structure of the superior orbital fissure, inferior orbital fissure, and optic canal?
superior orbital fissue (oculomotr, trochlear, abducens, ophthalmic)
inferior orbital fissure (infraorbital nerve and vessels)
optic canal (optic nerve, ophthalmic artery)
What are the muscles of the eye?
levator palpebrae, inferior oblique, superior, inferior, middle rectus (oculomotor)
lateral rectus (abducens)
superior oblique (trochlear)
What is the structure of the ophtalmic nerve in the orbit?
lacrimal, frontal (supraorbital and supra trochlear), and nasociliary nerves (ciliary ganglion)
What are the structure of the automonic nerves of the the orbit?
parasympathetic (oculomotor, ciliary ganglion, sphincter of pupil muscle)
sympathtic (dilator pupil muscle)
What is the structure of the vessels supplying the orbit?
internal carotid
ophthalmic artery
ophthalmic veins
cavernous sinus
pterygoid venous plexus
What are the muscles of the palate and what nerves innervate them?
muscles (palatoglossus, palatophyaryngeus, muscylar uvulae, levator veli palatine)
nerves (vagus nerv)
tensor veli palatine is innervated by trigeminal
What are the nerves of the teeth?
maxillary teeth (superior alveolar nerve)
mandibular teeth (inferior alveolar nerve)
What are the nerves of the oral gingivia?
buccal surface (superior alveolar, infraorbital nerves)
lingual surface (greater palatine, nasopalatine nerves)
What are the nerves of the oral cavity surfaces?
outer surface of mandible (buccal, mental nerves)
inner surface of mandible (lingual)
What are the nerves of the tongue?
anterior 2/3 sensory (lingual-general and chorda tympani-taste of facial nerve)
posterior 1/3 sensory (glossopharyngeal-general and taste)
motor (hypoglossal, vagus-palatoglossus)
What is the structure of the submandibular gland and lingual gland?
recieves postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from submandibular ganglion from chorda tympani
What is the structure of the lingual gland?
second up from external carotid artery
passes deep to muscles
What is the structure of the nasal cavity?
vestibule
olfactory region
respiratory region
(roof, medial wall, lateral wall, floor)
What are the nerves of the nasal cavity?
olfaction-olfactory nerves
mucosa-ophthalmic and maxillary nerves
What are the vessels of the nasal cavity?
sphenopalatine branch of maxillary artery
anterior ethmoidal branch of ophthalmic
septal branch of facial
What are the nerves of the pterygopalatine ganglion?
parasympathetic
preganglionic (greater petrosal from facial)
postganglionic supply lacrimal gland (lacrimal nerves, zygomaticotemporal)
What is the structure of the larynx?
cartilaginous
thyroid cartilage
cricoid cartilage (vocal and muscular process)
arythenoid cartilages
epiglottic cartilage
corniculate and cuneiform cartilages
What are the laryngeal muscles?
posterior cricoarythenoid (abducts vocal cords)
lateral cricoarytenoid (adductor)
cricothyroid (tensor)
thryoarytenoid (relaxer)
What nerves innervate the laryngeal muscles?
all are recurrent laryngeal nerve
except cricothyroid (external laryngeal of superior laryngeal)
What nerves account for the sensation above and below the vocal cord?
above-internal laryngeal branch of superior laryngeal
below-recurrent laryngeal
taste on epiglottis from internal laryngeal
What vessels innervate the larynx?
superior laryngeal artery of superior thyroid artery
inferior laryngeal artery of inferior thyroid artery
What are the structures of the external ear, and what nerves acompany them?
auricle (great auricular, auriculotemporal, lesser occipital)
external acoustic meatus (auriculotemporal, facial, vagus, glossopharyngeal)
What is the structure of the tympanic membrane?
skin externally (trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagues)
mucosa internally (glossopharyngeal)
What is the structure of the auditory ossicles?
malleus attaches to membrane(tensor tympani-trigeminal)
incus
stapes attaches to oval window (stapedius-facial)
What is the structure of the chorda tympani?
from facial nerve
internal acoustic meatus
between malleus and incus
joins lingual nerve in infratemporal fossa
carries parasympathetic fibers to submandibular gland and anterior tongue
What is the structure of the choclea of the ear?
contain spiral organ of Corti (hearing)
filled with endolymph
contains spiral ganglia
What is the structure of the vestibule of the ear?
utricle and saccule (linear acceleration)
senicircular canals
superior and anterior vestibular nerve
What nerves innervate the infrahyoid muscles?
ansa cervicalis
except thyrohyoid-hypoglossal
What nerves innervate the facial muscles?
facial nerve
What nerves innervate the phyaryngeal muscles?
vagus
except stylopharyngeus muscle-glossopharyngeal
What are the divisions of the trigeminal nerve?
ophthalmic (lacrimal, frontal, nasociliary)
maxillary (middle meningeal, pterygopalatine, superior alveolar, sygomatic, infraorbital)
mandibular (meningeal, muscular, buccal, lingual, inferior alveolar)
What are the divisions of the facial nerve?
greater petrosal
stapdial
chorda tympani
muscular
fine communicating
posterior auricular
What are the divisions of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
tympanic (lesser petrosal)
communicating
pharyngeal
carotid sinus
tonsillar
motor
lingual
What are the divisions of the vagus nerve?
meningeal
auricular
pharyngeal
SIM cardiac
superior laryngeal (internal, external)
recurrent laryngeal (inferior laryngeal)
What are the divisoins of the subclavian artery?
common carotid (only on right side)
vertebral artery
tyrocervical trunk (inferior thyroid, transverse cervical, suprascapular)
internal thoracic
costocervical trunk (deep cervical, superior intercostal)
dorsal scapular artery
What are the divisions of the common carotid artery?
internal
external (superior thyroid, lingual, facial, ascending pharyngeal, occipital, posterior auricular, maxillary, superficial temporal)
What are the divisions of the maxiallry artery?
mandibular part (deep auricular, anterior tympanic, middle meningeal, accessory meningeal, inferior alveolar)
pterygoid
pterygopalatine part (superior alveolar, infraorbital, descending palatine, artery of pterygoid canal, pharyngeal, shenopalatine)