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105 Cards in this Set

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Name the control systems of the body
Two control systems of the body ...
* Nervous
* Endocrine
Endocrine System is ..
a system of endocrine glands - ductless
(other glands exocrine - ducts)
How hormones can act:
* change permeability of a cell membrane
* synthesize, activate or deactivate an enzyme
* induce/inhibit secretory activity
Hormone effects can be:
general - effects on all cells of body
ie: thyroxine, growth hormone, insulin & glucagon

specific - effect only on one specific organ (target organ)
ie: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
tropic hormone
when target organ is another endocrine gland hormone is called a tropic hormone
What is another name for Hypophysis?
Pituitary gland
where is the HYPOPHYSIS located?
in the sella turcica
Name the lobes of the HYPOPHYSIS
2 lobes:
ADENOHYPOPHYSIS (anterior lobe)
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS (posterior lobe)
ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
* anterior lobe
* tropic hormones
1. Growth hormone
2. Prolactin
3. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
4. Follicle Stimulating Hormone
5. Luteinizing Hormone
6. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
7. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
Growth Hormone
* GH
* stimulates cell growth and replication
* accelerates protein synthesis
* giant, dwarf, acromegaly
Prolactin
* PRL
* promotes breast development during pregnancy
* milk production
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
* TSH
* stimulates production and secretion of thyroid hormones
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
* FSH
* female stimulates growth of follicles/ovulation
* male stimulates sperm production
Luteinizing Hormone
* LH in female
(luteinizing hormone)
* ICTH or ICSH in male
(Interstitial Cell Tropic Hormone or
Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone)
* female stimulates development of corpus luteum, ovulation, estrogen/progesterone production
* male stimulates development of interstitial cells and secretion of testosterone
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
* ACTH
* stimulates production and secretion of hormones from adrenal cortex
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
* MSH
* increased melanin synthesis
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS
*** DOES NOT PRODUCE ANY HORMONES ***
* stores and releases 2 hormones:
1. Oxytocin
2. Antidiuretic Hormone
Oxytocin
* OT
* produced in PARAVENTRICULAR CELLS of hypothalamus
* (female) stimulates smooth muscle contractions in uterus
* (female) stimulates milk "let down"
* (male) smooth muscle contraction in prostate gland
Antidiuretic Hormone
* ADH, vasaopressin
* produced by SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS of hypothalamus
* increases water reabsorption in kidney tubules
* constriction of arterioles (increases blood pressure)
Adrenal Gland
* superior to kidney
* Two parts:
1. Cortex (outer)
2. Medulla (inner)
Adrenal Gland CORTEX
* Outer
Zona glomerulosa
Zona fasciculata
Zona reticularis
Adrenal Gland CORTEX
- Zona glomerulosa
* mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
* increase Na+ and water reabsorption
* increases K+ secretion
Adrenal Gland CORTEX
- Zona fasciculata
* glucocorticoids (cortisol)
* increases glucose synthesis
* anti-inflammatory effects
* hyperadrenalism/Cushing's disease
* hypoadrenalism/Addison's disease
Adrenal Gland CORTEX
- Zona reticularis
* androgens
* female libido
* early development male
* adrenogenital syndrome
Adrenal Gland MEDULLA
* inner
* 2 hormones
- Epinephrine (80% more potent)
- Norepinephrine
* sympathomimetric
* alarm reaction
* "fight or flight"
Thyroid Gland
* below larynx
* 2 cell types:
- Follicle Cells
- Parafollicular Cells
Thyroid Gland
FOLLICLE CELLS
* produce iodinated hormones
* thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3)
* increase metabolic rate, protein synthesis & catabolism
* hyperthyroidism (toxic goiter, Graves disease)
* hypothyroidism (endemic goiter, myxedema, cretinism)
Thyroid Gland
PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS
* between follicles
* produce calcitonin
* decreases blood Ca++
Parathyroid Gland
* 4 small glands on posterior surface of thyroid
* parathyroid hormone (parathormone) increases blood Ca++
* hyperparathyroidism/bones decalcify
* hypoparathyroidism/decrease blood calcium, tetany, death
Pancreas
* posterior to the stomach
* exocrine/endocrine
* endocrine (Islets of Langerhans)
* 3 cell types:
- alpha
- beta
- delta
Pancreas
ALPHA CELLS
glucagon
* increase blood glucose
Pancreas
BETA CELLS
insulin
* decreases blood glucose
* diabetes mellitus (Type I, II)
Pancreas
DELTA CELLS
somatostatin
* inhibits secretion of glucagon & insulin
* slows GI absorption/secretion
Pineal Gland
* roof of third ventricle
* synthesis of melatonin
* melatonin inhibits of gonadotropin secretion
* MELATONIN secreted from serotonin
* regulates diurnal (circadian) rhythms
* seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Ovaries
(hormones/ova)
1. Estrogens
2. Progesterone
Testes
(hormones/spermatozoa)
1. Androgens
Male
Reproductive System
FUNCTIONS
* Spermatogenesis
* Performance of the male sex act
* Regulation of male reproductive functions by hormones
Female
Reproductive System
FUNCTIONS
* Oogenesis
* Nurturing developing embryo
* Lactation
* Regulation of cyclic female functions by hormones
* Development/maintenance female structures
Male Tract
External Genitalia
SCROTUM
* supports, protects, regulates position of testes behind penis/anterior to anus
* thin skin over dartos muscle (wrinkles, septum)
* cremaster muscle (internal oblique) suspends
Male Tract
External Genitalia
TESTES
* paired/abdominal
* descend 28th week development
* gubernaculum shortens
* cryptorchidism
* testes require temperature of 96 degrees F
Tunica Albuginea
* fibrous connective tissue capsule
* inward extensions septa/compartments
Seminiferous tubules
* highly convoluted tubules in compartments of testes
* production of male sex cells (spermatogenesis)
Sertoli cells
(sustentacular, nurse)
* around base of seminiferous tubules
* form tight junctions
* create "blood-testis barrier"
prevents immune system from becoming sensitized to antigens in developing sperm and producing antibodies
Leydig cells
(interstitial cells/endocrinocytes)
* major source of androgens (testosterone)
* seminiferous tubules also secrete androgens
Sperm
* head, middle piece and tail
- head: acrosomal cap (enzymes) & nucleus (chromosomes)
- middle piece: contains mitochondria (ATP)
- tail (flagellum): for motion
How long does it take for SPERM to develop?
2 months
How long do SPERM remain fertile?
remain fertile in male tract for about 4 weeks
How long do SPERM live in female tract?
live in female tract 24-72 hours
What is the average amount of ejaculate?
2 - 5 mL
SPERM
General Info
* produced by meiosis in seminiferous tubules
* maturation/epididymis
* frozen at -100 degrees C live years
* sperm count below 20 million/cubic mL ... infertile
* average count = 20-100 million/cubic mL
Sperm

Ducts (passageway)
* carry sperm from seminiferous tubules to point of ejaculation
(testes ... abdominal cavity ... out distal penis)
Sperm
Route:
seminiferous tubules ->
tibuli recti ->
rete testes ->
efferent ducts ->
epididymis ->
vas deferens ->
ejaculatory duct ->
urethra
Epididymis
* seminiferous tubules merge into: tubuli recti, rete testes, & efferent ducts
* efferent ducts extend upward to form this crescent shaped convoluted mass on top of testes
* 4 cm/23 ft
Epididymis
FUNCTIONS
1. stores sperm (2 wks) until mature
2. part of passageway for sperm
3. contractions of smooth muscle in wall helps propel sperm
Vas deferens
(ductus deferens, sperm duct, seminal duct)
* 45 cm
* contained within spermatic cord as it leaves epididymis
* enters inguinal canal (within spermatic cord)
* runs along superolateral part of bladder to posterior
* travels next to seminal vesicle, then joins duct from seminal vesicle to form EJACULATORY DUCT
Histological of
VAS DEFERENS
* lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium
* 3 layers of smooth muscle in wall
Spermatic cord
* passes obliquely through the inferior abdominal wall through the inguinal canal
* contains...
vas deferens, blood vessels (2 arteries/1 vein) lymph vessels and nerves
Ejaculatory duct
* 2 cm
* receives secretions from seminal vesicle (via duct) and sperm (from vas deferens)
* runs through prostate (whose secretions are also added)
* joins urethra just inferior to bladder
Urethra
* carries SEMEN from ejaculatory duct to exterior and URINE from bladder to exterior
* contained within penis, runs thru corpus spongiosum
* prostatic, membranous and penile portions
* urethral glands secrete mucus into
Accessory Glands
SEMINAL VESICLES
* on posterior surface of bladder
* secretion is viscous, yellow, alkaline
* 60% of semen
* contributes water, fructose, prostaglandins and clotting proteins
* energy/neutralize
Accessory Glands
PROSTATE GLAND
* inferior to bladder
* encircles neck of bladder/proximal urethra and ejaculatory duct
* compound tubuloalveolar glands
* secretion is slightly acidic
* 30% of semen
* contribues water, acid phosphatase, cholesterol, salts, seminal plasmin, phospholipids and mucus
* nutrients/activate sperm
Accessory Glands
BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
(Cowpers)
* pea sized
* compound tubuloalveolar glands
* directly below prostate at base of penis
* ducts open into penile urethra
* produce a mucoid secretion prior to ejaculation
* removes acidic urine residue & lubricates tip of penis
Accessory Glands
GLANDS OF LITTRE
* all along urethra
* secrete mucus
Penis
- 3 columns of highly vascular connective tissue called ERECTILE TISSUE
- 2 corpora cavernosa (dorsal)
- 1 corpus spongiosum (ventral)
* corpus spongiosum expands distally to form GLANS PENIS
* prepuce (foreskin)... loose fold of skin over glans which is cut during circumcision
Male
Hormone Secretion (causes)
* development of reproductive structures and maintenance of their function
* development of secondary sex characteristics
* control of spermatogenesis
* influences sexual behavior
Male
Hormone action involves:
* Hypothalamus
* Anterior pituitary
* Testes
Male
Hormone Secretion sequence
Hypothalamus --GnRH-->
Anterior Pituitary --gonadotropins FSH/ICTH-->
Testes --testosterone-->
Back to Hypothalamus
Negative Feedback Mechanism
Specific Example
Hypothalamus --TRH-->
Anterior Pituitary Gland --TSH-->
Thyroid Gland --Thyroxine-->
Back to Hypothalamus
Female
External Genitalia
Mons pubis
Clitoris
Labia Majora
Labia minora
vestibule
Mons pubis
* fat pad over pubic symphysis
Clitoris
(homolog penis)
* erectile tissue
Labia Majora
(homolog scrotum)
* outer lips
* contain fat, smooth muscle, areolar connective tissue, hairs, sense receptors, sweat and sebaceous glands
Labia minora
(homolog skin of penis)
* inner
* surround VESTIBULE
* darkly pigmented
* sebaceous glands, blood vessels & sense receptors
* merge anteriorly to form PREPUCE OF CLITORIS
vestibule includes:
- urethral orifice
- vaginal orifice
- hymen
- glands
Bartholin's glands
(greater vestibular)
* secrete into floor of vestibule during arousal
* homolog bulbourethral glands
Skene's Glands
(paraurethral)
* ducts open into urethra near external urethral orifice
* homolog prostate gland
Lesser vestibular glands
* produce secretion to moisten vestibule
* secrete onto exposed surface of vestibule
Female
gland secretions
* secretions from glands lubricate during sexual excitement
* secretion is an alkaline mucus
* although most female lubrication from glands of cervix
Female Reproduction
INTERNAL ORGANS
Ovaries
Fallopian tubes
Uterus
Vagina
Mammary Glands
Ovaries
* upper pelvic cavity on both sides of uterus
* homolog to the testes
* mesovarium attaches to broad ligament
* ovarian ligament
Ovaries
FUNCTIONS
* produce hormones
* produce ova (sex cells)
Ovaries
STRUCTURE
* 4 layers
* developing FOLLICLES ...
(primary, secondary, Graafian-mature)
* corups luteum, corpus albicans
Name the layers of the
OVARIES
4 layers:
1. germinal epithelium/simple cuboidal epithelium
2. tunica albuginea/dense fibrous connective tissue
3. cortex/developing follicles
4. medulla/loose connective tissue blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves
How long are the Fallopian tubes?
10 cm long
Fallopian tubes
(oviducts/uterine tubes)
* conduct sex cells from ovary to uterus
* infundibulum/fimbriae
* attached to broad ligament
Fallopian tubes
STRUCTURE
3 layers:
* serous membrane (serosa)
* smooth muscle
* lining ciliated simple columnar epithelium
Uterus
* hollow, muscular
* upsidedown pear/size of fist
* 7 cm long (3-6x)
* anteflexed (tilted forward)
* posterior to bladder/anterior to rectum
Parts of UTERUS
fundus
body
isthmus
cervix
Ligaments supporting UTERUS
8 ligaments (4 pairs) support uterus
* 2 broad ligaments
* 2 round ligaments
* 2 uterosacral ligaments
* 2 cardinal ligaments
Ligaments supporting UTERUS
BROAD LIGAMENTS
* two
* folds in peritoneum that anchor uterus to floor & lateral walls of pelvic cavity
* continuous with perimetrium
Ligaments supporting UTERUS
ROUND LIGAMENTS
* two
* upper uterus to pelvic wall
* thru inguinal canal to labia majora
* tilt uterus forward
* homolog to gubernaculum
Ligaments supporting UTERUS
UTEROSACRAL LIGAMENTS
* two
* aka retrouterine folds
* attach laterally to sacrum
Ligaments supporting UTERUS
CARDINAL LIGAMENTS
* two
* aka lateral
* within broad ligaments
* extend laterally from cervix and vagina to pelvic wall
Wall of uterus
name the LAYERS
Perimetrium
Myometrium
Endometrium
Wall of uterus
PERIMETRIUM
* serosa, folded peritoneum, continuous with broad ligament
Wall of uterus
MYOMETRIUM
* thick layer, smooth muscle fibers running in all directions
Wall of uterus
ENDOMETRIUM
* lining of ciliated columnar epithelium with many glands
STRATUM FUNCTIONALIS ... superficial, sloughed
STRATUM BASALIS ... deep, thin
Vagina
* 10 cm long
* between urinary bladder and rectum
* thin walled bibromuscular tube that extends from cervix to exterior
Vagina
passageway for:
menstrual flow
receptacle for sperm
birth canal
Structure of vagina
* Mucosa
* Muscular
* Fibrous connective tissue (adventia)
Structure of vagina
* Mucosa
stratified squamous epithelium
proliferates during cycle
rugae/few glands/very vascular
pH 3.5 - 4.0
enlarges to accomodate penis/fetus
hymen
Structure of vagina
* Muscular
smooth muscle interlaced with connective tissue
skeletal muscle near vaginal orifice
Structure of vagina
* Fibrous connective tissue (adventia)
dense connective tissue/elastic fibers
covers vagina
attaches to pelvic organs
Mammary Glands
* modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands with adipose tissue located over the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles
Female
Hormones needed for glands to develop/function:
* develop during puberty (estrogen/progesterone)
* during pregnancy PROLACTIN initiates and maintains milk secretion
* oxytocin for "let down"