Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/110

Click to flip

110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Digestive System
* all living cells need ENERGY to function
* humans derive energy by consuming organic molecules (food)
* digestive tract prepares food for cellular utilization by:
chemical and mechanical digestion
Specific Processes
* Ingestion
* Mechanical processing
* Digestion
* Secretion
* Absorption
* Compaction
* Excretion
Digestive system is ANATOMICALLY and FUNCTIONALLY divided into:
* GI tract (alimentary canal)
* Accessory organs
Histological components of tract
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa
Histology of Mucosa
simple columnar epithelium (except mouth, pharynx, esophagus, anal canal)
Histology of Submucosa
areolar connective tissue (vascular)
Histology of Muscularis
2 layers of smooth muscle
innter ... circular
outer ... longitudinal
Histology of Serosa
visceral peritoneum
areolar connective tissue over simple squamous epithelium
GI Tract components
Mouth
Tongue
Teeth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestines
Large Intestine
Mouth
* from lips to oropharynx
* roof bony HARD PALATE anteriorly
and muscular SOFT PALATE posteriorly
* muscular UVULA hangs down from posterior part of soft palate
Tongue
* floor of mouth
* mucous membrane over skeletal muscle
(chew, swallow, speech, taste buds)
* extrinsic muscles ... move tongue
* intrinsic muscles ... change shape and size
* both innervated by cranial nerve 12 (hypoglossal)
* lingual frenulum
* taste buds along sides of papillae
* taste receptors clustered within taste buds on papillae
How many taste buds does an adult have?
10,000
Name the taste bud sensations and their locations
4 sensations/taste buds
1. sweet - anterior
2. salty - anterior/anterolateral
3. sour - lateral
4. bitter - base
Teeth
* in alveoli (sockets) in maxillae and mandible
* peridontal ligament holds tooth in alveoli
* gingivae (gums) are stratified squamous epithelium
* tooth: crown, root, neck
* 2 sets of teeth
* 4 types of teeth (each functions differently)
What are the 2 sets of teeth?
Deciduous (baby) 20
Permanent 32
What are the 4 types of teeth and their functions?
incisors
canines
bicuspids
molars
What is the lingual frenulum?
the thing below the tongue (if it is too short you are 'tongue tied')
What do Salivary Glands do?
Secrete saliva continuously (lubricates/cleanses/dissolves food ... contains salivary amylase)
how much saliva is secreted daily?
1,000 to 1,500 ml
what is saliva composed of?
water and solutes
Salivary Glands
physically
* compound tubuloalveolar glands (merocrine)
* also, many small buccal glands in walls of oral cavity
name the pairs of LARGE SALIVARY GLANDS
3 pairs:
parotid glands
sublingual glands
submandibular (submaxillary) glands
parotid glands
* largest
* located over masseter muscle
* Stensen's ducts open in mouth by upper 12 yr molar
sublingual glands
* under mucosa in floor of mouth on side of tongue
* Rivinus's ducts open into floor of mouth
submandibular glands
aka submaxillary
* under mandible
* Wharton's ducts open into floor of mouth
(inferior to sublingual glands ducts)
Pharynx
* serves both respiratory and digestive systems
* lining stratifies squamous epithelium
* pahryngeal constrictor muscles push bolus toward esophagus
Swallowing
Part 1
aka deglutition
* mouth closed/breathing interrupted
* contractions of mylohyoid and digastric raise hyoid bone and tongue
* intrinsic muscles raise end of tongue to teeth which squeezes bolus toward entrance of oropharynx
*presence of bolus stimulates glossopharyngeal nerve
* soft palate and uvula close off nasopharynx
what makes bolus?
food in mouth + saliva
Swallowing
Part 2
* base of tongue retracted pushing bolus down
* stylohyoid and digastric muscles contract raising hyoid and larynx so epiglottis covers glottis
* arytenoid cartilages pivot so vocal cords come together (close)
* upper esophageal sphincter relaxes allowing bolus to enter esophagus
* wave of peristalsis initiated to move bolus down esophagus through lower esophageal sphincter into stomach
How long is the ESOPHAGUS?
25 cm long
What does the ESOPHAGUS do?
transports bolus from pharynx to stomach
What common injury involves the ESOPHAGUS?
hiatal hernia
Esophagus
* passes thru mediastinum, then diaphragm
(via esophageal hiatus)
* lining stratified squamous epithelium
* muscle in wall skeletal and smooth
* upper esophageal sphincter
* lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
Stomach
description and location
* J-shaped, distensible pouch
* inferior to diaphragm
What does the STOMACH do?
mechanical - chemical digestion
Stomach
* cardiac sphincter
* pyloric sphincter
* cardiac, fundus, body, pylorus
* lesser and greater curvature
* lesser and greater omenta
* lining (mucosa) simple columnar epithelium
* rugae
* gastric glands
Stomach functions
* store food
* initiate digestion of proteins
* limited absorption
* move chyme into small intestines
Gastric Glands secrete ...
gastric juice
Name the Gastric Glands
mucous neck cells
parietal cells
zymogen (chief) cells
enteroendocrine cells
mucous neck cells secrete
mucus
parietal cells secrete
HCL and intrinsic factor
zymogen (cheif) cells secrete
pepsinogen
enteroendocrine cells secrete
gastrin
length of SMALL INTESTINES
6 m
longest portion of GI tract
How long does chyme remain in the SMALL INTESTINE?
1-6 hrs
Small Intestine
* between pyloric sphincter/ileocecal valve
* lining simple columnar epithelium/goblet cells
* peritoneum (serous)-visceral
-parietal
* greater omentum
(4 layered serosa of stomach hangs over)
* mesentery supports SI (except duodenum)
* lacteals
Name the regions of the small intestine
3 regions (microscopic)
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
Duodenum
* 25 cm
* first part
* curls around head of pancreas
* retroperitoneal
* attached to posterior body wall
* receives hepatopancreatic duct
(gall bladder/pancreas)
jejunum
* 2 m (6 ft)
* primary absorpive area
* mesentery proper holds loosely to posterior abdominal wall
ileum
* 3 m (10 ft)
* joins cecum
* ileocecal valve
* mesentery
what increases the surface area of the SMALL INTESTINES?
plicae circularis, villi, microvilli
Small intestines:
intestinal glands
(simple tubular)
between bases of villi secrete enzyme to digest carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
How long are the LARGE INTESTINES?
1.5 m long
LARGE INTESTINES
What is the histology of the lining
lining simple columnar epithelium / goblet cells
Large Intestine
* ileocecal valve to anus
* diameter greatest
* mesocolon
* taeniae coli
* haustra
* epiploic appendages
* 2 sphincters
name the sphincters of the LARGE INTESTINE and the muscle type associated
internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle)
external anal sphincter (skeletal muscle)
Functions of the LARGE INTESTINE
* absorb water and electrolytes
* compactiion of intestinal contents
* store fecal material
* absorb vitamins synthesized by bacteria
how long will the LARGE INTESTINES store/concentrate fecal material?
12-36 hrs
colonic bacteria (flora)
* produce B/K vitamins
* digest cellulose
* ferment carbohydrate
* decompose pigments
feces
* 150 g eliminated daily
* water, salts, epithelial cells
* decomposed products, undigested food
* bacteria
regions of large intestine
* cecum (vermiform appendix)
* colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid)
* rectum
* anal canal
* anus
Name the ACCESSORY STRUCTURES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Liver
Gall Bladder
Bile
Pancreas
Liver
* largest gland (compound tubular)
* 1.5 kg
* under diaphragm
* 4 lobes
(right, left, quadrate and caudate)
* falciform ligament (between rt/lft lobes)
* ligamentum teres (round)
* sinusoids
Functions of LIVER
1. metabolic regulation
2. hematological regulation
3. synthesis and secretion of bile
GALL BLADDER
What is it physically and what is it's histology?
* a sac on inferior surface of liver
* lining simple columnar epithelium/rugae
* smooth muscle in wall
hepatopancreatic sphincter
relaxed ... bile secreted enters duodenum (open)
contracted ... bile backs up into gall bladder (closed)
Gall Bladder
* hepatopancreatic duct opens into duodenum
* hepatopancreatic sphincter
* functions to store/concentrate bile (30-60 ml)
Bile
* secreted by liver
* water, bile salts, cholesterol, lecithin, pigments, and ions
* needed for fat digestion
Pancreas
* 2nd largest gland
* retroperitoneal (transversely across posterior abdominal wall behind stomach)
* exocrine and endocrine (Islets of Langerhans)
* exocrine (digestive)
* enzymes (lipases, carbohydrases, peptidases)
* pancreatic juice (water, salts, sodium bicarbonate and enzymes)
* pancreatic duct .. hepatocpancreatic duct .. duodenum
Urinary System
maintains homeostasis in body by:
* excreting end products of meabolism (urea, uric acid and creatinine)
* regulating body fluid and electrolyte concentrations
* producing an ENZYME and a HORMONE
renin enzyme/regulates blood pressure
erythropoietin hormone/RBC formation
Where is the KIDNEY located?
*located on posterior wall of abdominal cavity
* retroperitoneal
Where is the ADRENAL GLAND located?
adrenal gland positioned superiorly to KIDNEY
What encloses the KIDNEY?
renal capsule & adipose tissue enclose kidney
What are the REGIONS of the KIDNEY?
3 Regions:
Cortex/outer/(nephrons)
Medulla/middle/(renal pyramids)
pelvis/inner/(expanded end of ureter which calyces empty into)
Functional Unit of KIDNEY
nephron
1,000,000/kidney
What are the parts of the NEPHRON?
2 parts:
* renal corpuscle
-glomerulus
-Bowman's capsule
* renal tubule
-proximal convoluted tubule
-loop of Henle
-distal convoluted tubule
Kidney
collection
* collecting tubules
* papillary ducts

minor calyces
major calyces
pelvis
ureter
Name the MECHANISMS which occur in the NEPHRON
(produce urine)
Glomerular Filtration
Renal Reabsorption
Renal Secretion
Glomerular Filtration
* material moves (filters) out of glomerulus into Bowman's capsule
* due to blood pressure (hydrostatic) in glomerulus
* water, ions, and organic molecules filter
Renal Reabsorption
* materials move from renal tubule into peritubular capillary (blood)
* proximal convoluted tubule
* almost all water, ions and organic molecules are reabsorbed
* ADH
Renal Secretion
* materials move from peritubular capillary into renal tubule
* distal convoluted tubule
* ions, acids and certain drugs
Blood Flow
TO KIDNEY
aorta
renal artery
lobar artery
interlobar artery
arcuate artery
interlobular artery
afferent arteriole
glomerulus
Blood Flow
FROM KIDNEY
efferent arteriole
peritubular capillary
venules
interlobular vein
arcuate vein
interlobar vein
lobar vein
renal vein
inferior vena cava
Name the URINARY STRUCTURES other than the Kidney
Ureters
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
How do URETERS join the bladder?
* enter bladder obliquely on posterior/lateral surface
What do URETERS do?
* carry urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
Where are URETERS located?
* between parietal peritoneum and body wall (retroperitoneal)
Name the LAYERS OF THE URETERS and their histology
3 layers:
* mucous - transitional epithelium
* muscular - smooth muscle (2 layers)
* fibrous - connective tissue
What does the URINARY BLADDER do?
Stores urine
What is the capacity of the URINARY BLADDER?
600 - 800 ml
Where is the URINARY BLADDER located?
floor of pelvic cavity
retroperitoneal

Male: posterior to pubis/anterior to rectum
Female: posterior to pubis/anterior to vagina and uterus
Urinary bladder
* hollow/distensible
* trigone
What are the LAYERS OF THE BLADDER?
4 layers of bladder:
* mucosa
* submucosa
* detrusor muscle (long/circ/long)
* fibrous
Urethra
* muscular tube
* lined with mucous membrane
* exits from inferior surface of bladder
Internal urethral sphincter
(smooth muscle)
* at bladder/urethra
(forced open when bladder contracts)
external urethral sphincter
(skeletal muscle)
* where urethra exits to outside
URETHRA: Male
* 18 cm
* only mucosa and submucosa
* opens at urethral orifice on distal penis
Name the portions of the MALE URETHRA
3 portions:
* Prostatic (bladder...prostate)
* Membranous (prostate...base of penis)
* Penile (within penis)
URETHRA: Female
* 4 cm
* mucosa, submucosa, muscularis
* opens at urethral orifice between clitoris and vaginal orifice
How much blood plasma is filtered each day?
180 liters
How much filtered blood plasma is reabsorbed?
all but 1-1.5 liters
MICTURITION
1. bladder fills with urine 2. walls stretch 3. stimulate stretch receptors 4. sensory impulses to spinal cord 5. relayed to cerebral cortex (micturation reflex center) 6. conscious desire to expel urine 7. parasympathetic impulses to bladder wall 8. detrusor muscle contracts 9. internal sphincter relaxes 10. external sphincter relaxed (voluntarily) 11. micturition
Disorders of the
URINARY SYSTEM
Dysuria
Hematouria
Cystitis
Calculi
Nephritis
Diabetes insipidus
Renal failure
Dysuria
painful urination
Hematouria
blood in urine
Cystitis
bladder inflamation
Calculi
stones in kidney
Nephritis
inflammation of kidney
Diabetes insipidus
not enough ADH produced by hypothalamus
Renal failure
cessation of glomerular filtration