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104 Cards in this Set

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Name the two control and communication systems of the body and what are the characteristics of each?
nervous sys- rapid/complex network of cells

endocrine sys- slow/via blood
Helps regulate/maintains homeostatis
the nervous system
Name the Functions of the Nervous system:
MONITORS CHANGE in/out of body (sensation)
PROCESSES AND INTERPRETS sensory input (integration)
Oranization of NERVOUS SYSTEM in outline form
2 Divisions:
1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and Spinal Cord
2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
a. Somatic (SNS)
b. Autonomic (ANS)
* sympathetic
* parasympathetic
Two cell types in neural tissue:
neurons and neuroglia
Cell body (perikaryon/soma)
* contains nucleus
(amniotic, large nucleolus, chromosomes)
* cytoplasm, mitochondria, Golgi, Nissel granules (ER), microtubules, and microfilaments.
* high metabolic rate
* most cell bodies in CNS
* 2 types of processes
name the two types of processes of neurons
dendrites and axons
Features of DENDRITES
* short, highly branched, unmyelinated RECEPTIVE surfaces of neuron
* carry information TO the cell body
Features of AXONS
* long, slender process arising from hillock of cell body
* most are myelinated
* carry information AWAY from cell body
* may have collateral branches
* axon endings have synaptic knobs (aka butons)
* many axons surrounded by a phospholipid MYELIN SHEATH
- outside CNS mad from SCHWANN CELLS
- inside CNS made from OLIGODENDROCYTES
* myelinated axons transmit impulses faster
* interruptions in myelin sheath called... nodes of Ranvier
Multiple Sclerosis
* myelin sheaths lacking on axons
* doesn't form/ degenerates
* interferes with transmission
name the Structural Types Of Neurons
MultiPolar, Bipolar and Unipolar
Structural Types of Neurons:
Features of Multipolar
* 1 axon/many dendrites
* most motor neurons are multipolar
Structural Types of Neurons:
Features of Bipolar
* 1 axon/1 dendrite
* parts of eye and ear
Structural Types of Neurons:
Features of Unipolar
* 1 process splits a short distance from cell body
* most sensory neurons are unipolar
name the Functional Types of Neurons
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Motor (efferent) neurons
Association (interneurons)
Functional Types of Neurons:

Features of Sensory (afferent) neurons
* tansmit impulses from sensory receptors in skin and internal organs to CNS
* most are unipolar
* cell bodies in sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia)
* dendrites may be very long
Functional Types of Neurons:

Features of Motor (efferent) neurons
* transmit impulses away from the CNS
* most are multipolar
* cell bodies in CNS (brain/gray matter of cord)
* carry impulse to effector cells (muscle/skin)
Functional Types of Neurons:

Features of Association (interneurons)
* transmit between sensory and motor
* most are multipolar
* contained only in CNS
* 99% of all neurons
Neuroglia (in CNS) contains:
Ependymal cells (ependymocytes)
Neuroglia (in PNS) contains:
Schwann Cells (neurolemmocytes)
Satellite cells
Neuroglia (in CNS):
Features of
Ependymal cells (ependymocytes)
* cuboidal/ columnar epithelium
* line ventricles of brain and central canal of cord
* along with capillaries and pia mater form choroid plexuses
Neuroglia (in CNS):
Features of
* most numerous neuroglia
* star shaped
* found between neurons and blood vessels
* support, transport nutrients
* blood-brain barrier
Neuroglia (in CNS):
Features of
* similar to astrocytes, but fewer processes
* forms myelin sheaths in brain and cord (CNS)
Neuroglia (in CNS):
Features of
* small cells wit fewer processes
* support
* phagocytosis of bacteria and debris
Neuroglia (in PNS):
Features of
Schwann Cells (neurolemmocytes)
* form myelin sheaths in PNS
Neuroglia (in PNS):
Features of
Satellite cells
* support around neuron cell bodies in gangila in PNS
Two notible facts re Neuroglia
* neuroglia are capable of mitosis (unlike neurons)
* tumors of CNS usually of neuroglial origin (gliomas)
Nerves are composed of
* processes of neurons (axons/dendrites)
* blood/lymph vessels
* connective tissue
Name the Neural Connective Tissues
Histology: Endoneurium
areolar connective tissue sheath around fiber
Histology: Perineurium
dense irregular connective tissue around fasciculi
Histology: Epineurium
dense irregular connective tissue with collagen fibers around whole nerve
Nerves and Tracts:
Features of Nerves
* contain fasciculi wrapped in connective tissue in the PNS
* most nerves contain both sensory and motor fibers (mixed)
Nerves and Tracts:
Features of Tracts
* contain fasciculi in the CNS (no connective tissue)
* tracts are either sensory (ascending) or motor (descending)
Ganglia and Nuclei:
Features of Ganglia
clusters of cell bodies outside the CNS
Ganglia and Nuclei:
Features of Nuclei
clusters of cell bodies inside the CNS
Nerve Impulse Transmission
* mechanism by which neurons carry signals
* nearly all body cells have an electrical difference between the outside and the inside of their cell membranes
* due to this electical potential difference nerve cells (and muscle cells) are excitable.
Neurons can be excited by...
* stimulation of sensory receptors
* other neurons
How does a NERVE IMPULSE happen?
when a neuron is stimulated the electrical difference across the cell membrane is altered
This alteration is propagated along the length of the neuron as a NERVE IMPULSE
what are Neurotransmitters
* chemicals that transmit impulse across a synapse from a presynaptic neuron to postsynaptic neuron
define synapse
the space between two neurons
where are neurotransmitters stored?
in synaptic vesicles in axon endings of presynaptic neuron
Name some neurotransmitters in the body
1. acetylcholine
2. epinephrine
3. norepinephrine
4. dopamine
5. endorphins/enkephalins
6. serotonin
7. gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
define meninges
3 layers of connective tissue protecting the brain and cord of the CNS
name the meninges
1. dura mater
2. arachnoid mater
3. pia mater

Features of DURA MATER
* tough mother
* dense irregular connective tissue
* outermost layer
* double layered (2 ply)
* space between layers create blood DURAL SINUSES
* dura terminates at level of 2nd sacral vertebra

* delicate, avascular, connective tissue with collagen/elastic fibers
* between pia/dura maters
* subarachnoid space (space under arachnoid) is filled with CSF
* folds in arachnoid mater called villi function as 1 way passage to allow CSF to diffuse from subarachnoid space into blood in dural sinuses

Features of PIA MATER
* soft mother
* thin, transparent, areolar connective tissue
* innermost, delicate, vascular
* follows contours of brain
* with capillaries and ependymal cells forms choroid plexes (secrete CSF)
name the two layers to DURA MATER
outer = periosteal dura
inner = meningeal dura
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
* similar to plasma
* formed by an ultrafiltration process from choroid plexes in roofs of ventricles
* circulates in brain (ventricles) and outside of brain (subarachnoid space)
* reabsorbed into arachnoid villi and then returned to venous circulation
Notibles re Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
* CNS contains 150 ml CSF
* 500 ml CSF produced/reabsorbed each day
* clear, colorless fluid similar to plasma (except more Na+, Cl-, no protein)
* CSF functions to cushion and protect the brain
* CSF carries nutrients and metaabolic wastes to/from nervous tissue
* CNS "floats" in CSF
CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid is contained in...
* Ventricles
lateral (1 and 2)
* spinal cavity
* subarachnoid space
between the lateral and third ventricle?
Interventricular foramen
Foramen of Monro
between the third and fourth ventricle?
cerebral aqueduct
Connecting the fourth ventricle to the subarachnoid space?
lateral aperture and median aperture
Ventricle connected to the central canal of cord?
Fourth ventricle
epinim of lateral aperture
Foramen of Luschka
Epinim of median aperture
foramen of magendie
epinim of cerebral aqueduct
Aquaduct of silvius
Life as a CSF
flows from ventricles 1 & 2
through interventricular foramina
ventricle 3
cerebral aqueduct
ventricle 4
down central canal of cord, up median and lateral apertures
subarachnoid space
arachnoid villi
dural sinuses
inter jugular vein (venous circulation)
BRAIN 3rd week of development...
3 vesicle brain
1. FOREBRAIN - prosencephalon
(cerebrum, thalamus & hypothalamus)
2. MIDBRAIN - mesencephalon
(cerebral peduncles & corpora quadrigemina)
3. HINDBRAIN - rhombencephalon
(pons, medulla oblongata & cerebellum)
BRAIN 5th week of development
5 vesicle brain
FOREBRAIN - prosencephalon splits to form:
1. telencephalon...cerebrum
2. diencephalon...thalamus & hypothalamus
3. MIDBRAIN - mesencephalon
(cerebral peduncles & corpora quadrigemina)
HINDBRAIN - rhombencephalon splits to form:
4. metencephalon...pons/cerebellum
5. myelencephalon...medulla oblongata
Features of the CEREBRUM
* 2 hemispheres
* convolutions (gyri/sulci)
* longitudinal fissure between hemispheres
* falx cerebri (dipping down of meningi to attach to the crysta galli
* lateral ventricles
* white matter/gray matter (couple mm on surface)
* basal ganglia
* cental sulcus (frontal/parietal)
* lateral sulcus (frontal/temporal)
Name the 4 lobes of the CEREBRUM
Cerebral cortex notibles
* "conscious mind"
* aware of ourselves/sensation
* initiate and control voluntary movement, communicate, remember and understand
Functional areas of Cerebral Cortex
Primary Motor Cortex
Primary Sensory Cortex
Visual Cortex
Auditory and Olfactory Cortices
Association areas and Integrative centers
Functional areas of CEREBRAL CORTEX:
Primary Motor Cortex
* FRONTAL LOBE (precentral gyrus)
* origin of pyramidal tracts
* conscious control of skeletal muscles
Functional areas of CEREBRAL CORTEX:
Primary Sensory Cortex
* PARIETAL LOBE (postcentral gyrus)
* conscious perception of touch, pressure, vibration, pain, temperature and taste
Functional areas of CEREBRAL CORTEX:
Visual Cortex
* conscious perception of visual stimuli
Functional areas of CEREBRAL CORTEX:
Auditory and Olfactory Cortices
* conscious perception of hearing and smell
Functional areas of CEREBRAL CORTEX:
Association areas and Integrative centers
* connected to sensory and motor regions
* integration and processing of sensory data
* coordinate and initiation of motor activities
* includes Premotor area (ant. to precentral gyrus)
responsible for learned motor activities
* integrative centers are hemisphere specific
Features of Tracts
* association tracts
* arcuate fibers
* commissural tracts
* projection tracts
Association tracts
move information around in one hemisphere
Arcuate fibers
short assoc tracts that run from on gyrus to anogher
Commissural Tracts
connect the 2 hemispheres
Projectio Tracts
connect cerebrum to other parts of brain or CNS
Basal Ganglia features
* nuclei
* (little groups of cell bodies that are) deep in white matter of cerebrum
* clusters of gray matter
* cell bodies of extrapyramidal tracts
* function for subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone and coordination of learned movement patterns
name some of the BASAL GANGLIA
1. caudate nucleus
2. lentiform nucleus
3. globus pallidus
4. putamen
5. amygdaloid body
Functions of BASAL GANGLIA
* function as complex neural calculators that work with the cerebral cortex in controling movements
* regulate intensity of movements
* a group of tracts and nuclei that form a ring (limbus) around the brainstem
* "our emotional brain"
* establishes emotional/behavioral drives
* link conscious/intellectual function with unconscious autonomic function
* facilitate short term memory
* a functional grouping of structures
* amygdaloid body acts as integration center
Reticular Formation (RAS)
* reticular activating system
* network of fibers in medulla, pons, and midbrain
* interconnects nuclei
* activates/arouses cerebral cortex
* maintains wakefulness/alertness
* part of diencephalon
* between cerebral hemispheres
* surrounds 3rd ventricle
* largely gray matter (nuclei)
* relay station for sensory and motor pathways
* relays all sensory impulses except olfactory to cerebrum or brainstem
* diencephalon
* below thalamus
* lower sidewalls/floor of 3rd ventricle
* several important functions
* LINK between nervous-endocrine systems
1. produces releasing/inhibiting factors (anterior pituitary)
2. produces 2 hormones:
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone "ADH" (secreted from posterior pituitary)
* controls of autonomic function (heartrate, blood pressure, respiration and digestive functions)
* helps control body temperature
* helps regulate hunger, thirst, sleep-wakefullness
* roof of diencephalon
* includes pineal gland (secretes melatonin)
* melatonin
* diurnal rhythms
Cerebral Peduncles
* ventral midbrain
* bundles of pyramidal motor fibers descending from primary motor cortex
* budles of sensory fibers ascending to thalamic nuclei
* oculomotor nerve (III) emerges
Corpora Quadrigemina
* dorsal midbrain
* 4 rounded elevations (sensory nuclei)
* trochlear nerve (IV) emerges just below (the only cranial nerve emerging dorsally
name the Corpora Quadrigemina and their functions
Superior Colliculi (2) - relay visual stimuli from thalamus

Inferior Colliculi (2) - relay auditory stimuli from medulla
PONS features and functions
* rounded bridge on underside of brainstem
* nuclei / tracts
* connects cerebellum with cerebrum and brainstem
* tracts relay to/from other parts of CNS
* nuclei for modifying respiratory rhythmicity
* nuclei for cranial nerves V, VI, VII, VIII
Medulla Oblongata features and functions
* most inferior part of the brain
* continuation of cord above foramen magnum
* pyramids on ventral surface are tracts from primary motor area/lateral corticospinal tracts decussate at medulla. (cross over to other side, so motor areas on 1 side of cortex control muscles on other side of body).
* ALL ascending and ALL descending tracts pass thru medulla (some synapse)
* nuclei of cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, XI, XII
* contains nuclei and centers for regulation of vital autonomic functions
Vital Autonomic Centers
* Cardiac center
increase/decrease heart rate
* Vasomotor center
constrict/dialate blood vessels
raise/lower blood pressure
* Respiratory center
functions with pons to regulate rate, depth, and rythm of breathing
* 2nd largest part of the brain
* behind cerebrum
* surface convolutions... folia
* 2 cerebellar hemispheres (vermis between)
* hemispheres consist of anterior/posterior lobes
* flocculonodular lobes lie anterior and inferior to hemispheres
* 3 pairs of cerebellar peduncles (tracts connect cerebellum to brainstem, cerebrum and spinal cord)
Functions of cerebellum...
Anterior/posterior lobes
* involved in planning, execution and coordination of limb and trunk movements
Flocculonodular lobes
* maintain balance and control eye movements
Name the peduncles and functions
Inferior cerebellar peduncles
* link cerebellum to medulla and spinal cord
Middle cerebellar peduncles
* link cerebellum to pons
Superior cerebellar peduncles
* link cerebrellum to midbrain, thalamus and cerebrum
two notable physical features re Cerebellum
* white matter of cerebellum is treelike pattern ... ARBOR VITAE
* TENTORIUM CEREBELLI... meningeal projection between cerebrum and cerebellum that contains TRANSVERSE SINUS
* 18 in in length
* CNS below medulla
* passes thru vertebral canal of vertebrae
* extends from forament magnum to level of 1st or 2nd lumbar vertebra
* conduct impulses to/from brain
* process spinal reflexes
matter in Spinal Cord
Gray matter (butterfly)
* cell bodies (neurons/glia)
White matter (around butterfly)
* tracts (myelinated/unmyelinated axons)
Spinal Cord:
White matter
How many columns?
AKA for columns?
Name columns
Three Columns.... funiculi

Anterior funiculus
Lateral funiculus
Posterior funiculus
Spinal Cord:
White matter
Re Columns
Funiculi contain tracts (fasciculi)
* Ascending tracts (sensory)
- carry information to brain
* Descending tracts (motor)
- carry information from brain
Spinal Cord:
White matter
Ascending Tracts
fasciculus gracilis
* carry fine touch, pressure & proprioception from lower half of body
fasciculus cuneatus
* carry fine touch, pressure and proprioception from upper half of body
lateral spinothalamic tracts
* carry pain, temperature
ventral (anterior) spinothalamic tracts
* carry crude touch and pressure
dorsal (posterior spinocerebellar tracts
ventral (anterior) spinocerebellar tracts
* carry unconscious proprioception from uscles to cerebellum
Spinal Cord:
White matter
Descending Tracts function
* carry motor information from brain to skeletal muscles
Spinal Cord:
White matter
Descending Tracts
Pyramidal tracts
* originate from cells in precentral gyrus
* carry motor stimuli for fine skeletal muscle movements
corticobulbar tracts
* motor control over skeletal muscles
lateral corticospinal tracts
* decussate in medulla
* motor control over skeletal muscles
ventral corticospinal tracts
* motor control over skeletal muscles
Extrapyramidal tracts
* originate in cerebral cortex
* medial pathway
vestibulospinal tracts
tectospinal tracts
reticulospinal tracts
* lateral pathway
rubrospinal tracts
Medial pathway
subconscious regulation of balance, tone, eye, head, neck, arm position in response to visual and auditory stimuli. Regulation of reflex activity
lateral pathway
subconscious regulation of arm muscle tone and movement