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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What serum marker is a sensitive indicator of alcohol use?
When do alcoholics in withdrawal exhibit delirium tremens?
2-5 days after last drink
What are the signs of delirium tremens?
1) autonomic hyperactivity (tachycardia, tremors, anxiety)
2) psychotic sxs (hallucinations, delusions)
3) confusion
A man is brought to the ER with severely depressed respirations, pinpoint pupils, and seizures. What is wrong with him?
Opioid intoxication.
A man is brought to the ER with fever, rhinorrhea, nausea, stomach cramps, piloerection, and dilated pupils. What is happening?
Opioid withdrawal. Also have anorexia, insomnia, anxiety, diarrhea, yawning.
A man is brought to the ER with pupil dilation, HTN, tachycardia, euphoria, prolonged wakefulness, arrhythmia, delusions, and hallucinations. What is wrong?
Amphetamine overdose.
A man is brought to the ER with depression, lethargy, HA, stomach cramps, hunger, and hypersomnolence. What is going on?
Amphetamine withdrawal.
A man is brought to the ER in a euphoric state, with pupil dilation, HTN, but claims he feels bugs crawling over him. What does he have?
Cocaine intoxication.
Overdose with what illegal drug can cause sudden cardiac death?
Withdrawal from cocaine can cause what sxs?
- severe depression
- suicidality
- hypersomnolence
- fatigue
- severe psychological craving
Intoxication with what illegal drug causes nystagmus, ataxia, delirium, and homocidality?
What illegal drug causes marked anxiety or depression, visual hallucinations, flashbacks, and pupil dilation?
Which 2 illegal drugs do not have withdrawal sxs?
- marijuana
What illegal drug causes inc. appetite, euphoria, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, and impaired judgement?
Barbiturate overdose is manifested by:
- respiratory depression
Barbiturate withdrawal can cause life-threatening:
cardiovascular collapse
Benzodiazepine overdose causes:
- amnesia
- ataxia
- somnolence
- minor respiratory depression
- additive effects w/ETOH
Benzodiazepine withdrawal causes:
- rebound anxiety
- seizures
- tremor
- insomnia
Mallory-Weiss syndrome =
Longitudinal esophageal lacerations at GE junction caused by excessive vomiting. Pain. Complication of alcoholism.
An alcoholic presents with jaundice, hypoalbuminemia, coagulation factor deficiencies, portal HTN, and asterixis. What is going on with his liver?
What is the triad of Wernicke's encephalopathy?
ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, confusion
What is Korsakoff's psychosis?
memory loss, confabulation, personality change, associated with mammillary body hemorrhage
What vitamin deficiency causes Wernicke-Korsakoff's?
Heroin addicts are at high risk for what 6 things?
1) overdose
2) right-side endocarditis
4) hepatitis
5) abscesses
6) hemorrhoids
What are 2 opioid receptor antagonists useful in heroin overdose?
Naloxone, naltrexone
What long-acting oral opiate is used for heroin detox or maintenance?
When is a person delirious?
- develops rapidly
- waxing & waning level of consciousness
- disorganized thinking
- hallucinations
- illusions
- disturbed sleep/wake cycle
- cognitive dysfunction
Is delirium reversible?
Often yes, check for drug and anticholinergic effects.
When is a person demented?
- gradual drop in cognition
- memory deficits
- aphasia, apraxia, agnosia
- loss of abstract thought
- impaired judgement
Is dementia reversible?
Mostly not.
How do you know when you're having a major depressive episode?
SIGECAPS for > 2 wks:
- sleep disturbance
- lose interest
- guilt
- loss energy
- loss concentration
- change appetite
- psychomotor retardation or agitation
- suicidal thoughts
Lifetime prevalence depression:
male - 5-12%
female - 10-25%
Dysthymia =
mild depression lasting at least 2 yrs
Munchausen's syndrome =
chronic Hx of multiple hospitalizations and willingness to receive invasive procedures
Munchausen's syndrome by proxy =
illness in a child is caused by parent - child abuse! must report!
Pseudocyesis =
false belief of being pregnant
Conversion =
motor or sensory sxs suggest disorder but tests & PE negative
Somatoform pain disorder =
prolonged pain not explained completely by illness
Somatization disorder =
variety of complaints in multiple organ systems but no findings
Hypochondriasis =
fear of having illness despite reassurance of contrary
Asperger disorder =
Milder form of Autism involving social relationship problems. Normal intelligence. No cognitive defects.
Rett disorder =
X-linked, only in girls. Loss of development and mental retardation by age 4. Hand-wringing stereotype.
Narcoleptic sleep episodes start with ___ sleep.
Cataplexy =
loss of all muscle tone following strong emotional stimulus
What is the definition of schizophrenia?
Periods of psychosis and disturbed behavior with decline in functioning > 6 months
Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia =
1.5% males and females, blacks and whites