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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 Different Planes of Brain Sections:
-Axial: cross-section slice
-Coronal: vertical slice from ear to ear
-Sagittal: vertical slice from nose to back of head
Forward terms
-Anterior
-Rostral
-Ventral
Backward terms
-Posterior
-Dorsal
-Caudal
4 Major subdivisions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM:
-Ventricular system
-Brain
-Spinal cord
-Vasculature
3 Brain Subdivisions
-Cerebrum
-Cerebellum
-Brain stem
3 Cerebral Subdivisions
-Cortex
-Basal ganglia
-Diencephalon
3 Types of Cerebral cortex:
1. Neocortex
2. Paleocortex
3. Archicortex
Features of Neocortex
-6 histological layers
-Major contributor of Cortex
2 Important things in the Paleocortex:
-Uncus
-Parahippocampal gyrus
2 Important things in the Archicortex:
-Hippocampus
-Dentate Gyrus
Histological feature of archicortex
3 layers
5 Divisions of the Cerebral cortex:
-Frontal lobe
-Parietal lobe
-Occipital lobe
-Temporal lobe
-Limbic cortex
Function of frontal lobe:
Higher cognitive function
Lateral ventricles are connected to what: Via?
Third ventricle
Via the Interventricular foramen of monroe
What tissue is associated with the lateral ventricles?
Choroid plexus - produces CSF
Choroid plexus returns to the blood supply via:
Arachnoid granules
Third ventricle connects with Fourth via what?
Cerebral Aqueduct of Sylvius
How many holes in the 4th ventricle? What are their names?
2 Lateral foramina of Lushka
1 Median Forament of Magendie
What is th central canal?
The portion of the SC filled with CSF.
What is the archicortex involved in?
Memory and navigation
What are the divisions of the Cerebral Cortex again?
-Frontal lobe
-Parietal lobe
-Temporal lobe
-Occipital lobe
-Limbit cortex
What is the functioning of the frontal lobe like?
The highest level in the nervous system - where cognition and personality are located.
Where is the frontal lobe seen?
Everything anterior to the central sulcus.
What are the important features in the frontal lobe?
1. Central sulcus
2. Precentral gyrus
3. Precentral sulcus
What does the Precentral gyrus do?
Primary Motor Cortex - voluntary muscle control
What 3 important gyri are in front of the precentral sulcus?
1. Superior frontal gyrus
2. Middle frontal gyrus
3. Inferior frontal gyrus
The inferior frontal gyrus consists of what 3 parts:
-Pars Triangularis
-Pars Orbitalis
-Pars Opercularis
What are the Orbital gyri?
The very frontmost parts of the frontal cortex
Where is Gyrus Rectus?
Most medially on the underside of the frontal cortex - lying lengthwise between the 2 olfactory tracts.
Where is the Parietal lobe found?
Everything Posterior to the Central Sulcus
What type of functioning is the Parietal lobe involved in?
-Spatial information
-Attentional control
-Polymodal integration of vision, hearing, and touch.
What would happen if the Parietal lobe got damaged?
Unawareness of the parts of the body.
What is the Postcentral gyrus responsible for?
Primary somatosensory cortex - it is touch sensation.
What are the divisions of the parietal lobe?
-Superior parietal lobe
-Inferior parietal lobe
-Paracentral lobule
-Precuneus
-Parieto-occipital sulcus
What is the Superior parietal lobe responsible for?
Space perception
Attention control
What are the gyri that compose the inferior parietal lobe?
-Supramarginal gyrus
-Angular gyrus
What does the "Angular" gyrus angle around?
The Superior temporal sulcus
What does the Supramarginal gyrus "marginate"?
The dorsal tip of the lateral sulcus.
What is the Paracentral lobule, and where is it found?
IT is the transition zone between parietal cortex and frontal cortex; surrounds the end of the central sulcus, and can only be seen medially.
What is the Precuneus?
A lobe located between the paracentral lobule and the cuneus; Anterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus.
What does the Parietal-occipital sulcus separate?
The parietal and occipital lobes.
What marks the line where the temporal lobe begins?
Everything below the Lateral sulcus.
What are the 3 major components of the Temporal lobe?
Superior temporal gyrus
Middle temporal gyrus
Inferior temporal gyrus
Where is the Insula, and what is its function?
Lying within the Sylvian (lateral) sulcus; the Primary Auditory Cortex
What important gyrus is in the Insula?
The Transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl
Transverse Temporal Gyrus
Primary receptive area for Audition and Spoken Language comprehension.
Brodmann areas for audition:
41 and 42
Plantum temporale
Language processing
Hippocampus
Spatial memory
Gyrus close to Hippocampus
Parahippocampal gyrus
Most medial structure of temporal lobe:
Uncus - it makes a little cap on the amygdala
Uncus
Memory
Amygdala
Emotion and motivation - part of the limbic system.
Occipital lobe functions:
Vision
5 Important structures in occipital lobe:
1. Parietooccipital sulcus
2. Calcarine sulcus
3. Cuneus
4. Lingual gyrus
5. Calcarine cortex
What does the calcarine sulcus separate?
Cuneus gyrus aboe
Lingual gyrus below
Calcarine cortex function:
Primary visual cortex
Limbic cortex functions
Emotion
What is the gyrus in the Limbic Cortex?
Cingulate gyrus
What is the function of the Basal Ganglia?
Conscious initiation of Voluntary Movement
3 Components of the Basal ganglia:
1. Caudate nucleus
2. Lentiform nucleus
3. Nucleus accumbens
What is the caudate nucleus?
Rams-horn shaped structures that run with the ventricular system.
Where do the tails of the Caudate nucleus end near?
The amygdala
2 Components of the Lentiform nucleus:
-Putamen
-Globus Pallius
What two structures are connected via the Nucleus Accumbens?
The medial side of the Caudate Nucleus to the Globus Pallidus
What does the Diencephalon function to do?
It is the mid brain - a RELAY center for receiving sensory information from the periphery and relaying it to the cortex.
Where is the Diencephalon located?
Surrounding the 3rd ventricle
4 Components of the Diencephalon:
-Thalamus
-Hypothalamus
-Epithalamus
-Subthalamus
What is the Thalamus?
The major gateway to the motor cortex.
What does the Thalamus consist of?
A group of gray matter nuclei
Function of the Hypothalamus
Secretion of hormones, control of many autonomic and endocrine systems.
What is the hypothalamus connected to?
The pituitary gland via the Infundibulum
What does the Epithalamus contain?
-Pineal gland
Posterior commisure
-Habenular nuclei
What is the Subthalamus and where is it found?
A small set of Subthalamic nuclei, located underneath the Epithalamus.
What are the major functions of the cerebellum?
Motor coordination
Motor learning
4 major features of the Cerebellum:
-Cerebellar hemispheres
-Vermis
-Flocculus
-Cerebellar tonsil
What functions is the Brain Stem involved in?
Involuntary
Homeostasis
What are the 3 components of the Brain Stem?
1. Mid-brain
2. Pons
3. Medulla Oblongata
3 Important components of the Midbrain:
1. Tegmentum
2. Tectum
3. Cerebral aqueduct