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26 Cards in this Set

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The behaviors that I can see, measureable on SSI, could be viewed on video
overt behavior
Mental gymnastics, the avoidance, the behaviors underneath the surface
covert behavior
You are focusing on the stuttering itself, the client is aware that this is why they are in therapy
direct therapy
The client is probably not aware of why they're in therapy, you're trying to change the environment, client-directed, language therapy
indirect therapy
_________ develop coloring at an early age. This is a fine motor skill, similar to speech. The nerves are myelinated sooner.
______________ is one of the things we look for in a preschool child to determine whether/not they will become a chronic stutterer. It is a # of dysfluencies that are clustered together or next to each other.
________________ ____________ is where the last sound of one word is a stop and the beginning of the next word is a stop. Ends and begins with an oral stop
budding stop
When ____________________ __________ and ______________ is high, you will get a higher % of dysfluencies.
information load
Give an example of when there is a higher incidence of stuttering.
cognitive cases: Down's syndrome
Roughly between ______ to ____ of youngsters who stutter will also have a co-occuring condition that is part of the communication process. What are the candidates?
1/3 --> 50%
language & phonology
___________________ have a higher natural recovery rate from stuttering.
Nonfluent behaviors of people who stutter are on smaller linguistic units compared to nonfluent behaviors of people who don't stutter
What are two reasons why incidence (how many ppl are expected to develop stuttering) / prevalence (how many stutter currently) differ from one research study to another?
What are some fluency-enhancing speaking conditions where many PWS become more fluent? Why is this the case?
1) video games
2) reading
3) whispering
You're not putting as much energy into the system, they're more automatic activities.
This theory of stuttering states that psychological problems are the primary cause for the onset of stuttering. Most are unsupported in the research and were developed from pear
Wendell Johnson believed that stuttering was found after individuals were diagnosed with stuttering. The diagnosis is one of the causes of the disorder. Research findings stated that parents of children were demanding and overprotective. Their disappointment was thought to cause stuttering.
Reactive avoidance/Diagnosogenic
The cause of stuttering stems from different fears (failure). Person should be open about stuttering, reducing tension, reducing stuttering.
Conflict Theory/Appraoch Avoidance
Stuttering is made up of core and secondary features. Therapy focuses on desensitization.
Two Factor Theory
This theory says that stuttering usually occurs at beginning/on stressed syllables
Fault Line
Occurs when framework for syllables is not ready when speech is produced.
The cause of stuttering is part genetic. This could be due to structural brain features, functional brain features, motor abnormality, personality, or temperament characteristics.
Genetic theory
This theory discusses structural differences between PWS and NF. Brain activation patterns in AWS are different than NF. Reduced stuttering as a result of tx is associated with changes in patterns of brain activity.
Brain dysfunction theory
This theory discusses the science of how skilled actions are developed, how practice and associated variables influence permanent changes in performance, and how trial-and-error processes are involved in learning. This explains how rehearsing in slow motion generalizes to actions sped up.
Motor learning theory
This theory explains stuttering as a disorder of auditory processing. Studies reported brain activity in temporal regions responsible for auditory functions during stuttering.
Auditory feedback theory
List 2 explanations of the stuttering-audition link.
-Psychological: PWS in noise cannot hear own speech output and therefore cannot be critical of own speech, become apprehensive and stutter
-Motoric factors: speaking manner changes in situations of altered auditory stimulation
-PWS have defective auditory feedback loop
What are problems with the auditory theories?
1) Do not account for people who begin stuttering before sound occurs
2) Not all PWS respond with more fluency during noise/DAF