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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fluency
The effortless flow of speech
Stuttering
characterized by an abnormally high frequency or duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech
Core behaviors
Repetitions, prolongations, blocks
Accessory Behaviors
Escape behaviors, avoidance behaviors
Wendell Johnson "stuttering is an
anticipatory, apprehensive, hypertonic, avoidance
Feeling and attitudes- Sheehan
Stuttering is a disorder of the social presentation of the self. Stuttering is not a speech disorder but a conflict around self and role, an identity problem
Van Riper
Stuttering occurs when the forward flow of speech is interrupted by a motorically disrupted sound, syllable or word or by the speaker's reactions thereto
Other disfluencies which are probably not stuttering
Hesitations and interjections, voluntary, meditative, circumstantial. Revisions and incomplete phrases are not considered by listeners to be stuttering
Accessory Features
Speech-related movements, ancillary body movements, verbal features
Cluttering
A disorder of rate and intelligibility
Dysphatic stuttering
Disfluencies associated with neurological conditions
Dysphatic stuttering
Disfluencies associated with word finding problems
Other terms for stuttering
Stammering, dysphemia, tachyphemia, spasmophemia
Onset
May occur 18mo-12 years but most likely 2-5 years, this age coincides with a period of rapid expansion of speech and language skills
Prevalence (current stutterers)
around 1% of school children
Incidence (ever stuttered)
around 5%
Gender
3:1 male to female in 1st grade, 5:1 5th grade
Anticipation
When asked to read aloud can predict which words they will stutter on
Consistency
Tend to stutter on the same words
Adaptation
When reading same passage repeatedly, there is a reduction in stuttering
Brown discovered that stutterers stutter more on
Consonants, sounds in initial position, contextual speech, nouns, verbs, adjectives, longer words, stressed syllables
Reaction time
The time between stimulus and response is slower in PWS
Cerebral Dominance
We all use both left and right but left specialized for processing brief, rapidly changing signals, right better at processing slowly changing stimuli, PWS have more right dominance than non-PWS
Speculations about constitutional factors in stuttering
disorder of cerebral localization, disorder of timing, reduced capacity for internal modeling, language production deficit
A disorder of timing
Van Riper and Kent say the temporal programming of perception and production of speech in inefficient
A language production deficit
stuttering onset is during a period of intense language development. Stuttering is most frequent when language load is heaviest
Physical Development
Toddlers are learning to walk this ties up much neuronal space
PWS have increase stuttering when adults use
rapid speech rate, polysyllabic vocab, complex syntax, two languages
SWS have more stuttering when:
competing for speaking, frequent interruptions, demand for display speech, loss of attention, hurried, frequent questions, excited, many things to say
Accessory behaviors by
4 years
As a group PWS…
have lower IQ, poorer in school, more language and artic disorders, slower reaction time, CAP worse, use right more often in processing speech
Learning factors in stuttering
classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, avoidance conditioning
Instrumental conditioning
If an accessory behavior, happens to occur when PWS is attempting to get through the utterance that may be enough of a "reward"
Instrumental conditioning
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by a reward or punishment or a negative stimulus is followed by something that alleviates the stimulus. If the reinforcement tapers down to intermittent reinforcement, the behavior is even more likely to occur
Normal dysfluency - core behaviors, accessory behaviors, feelings, underlying processes
part word repetition, single syllable, multi-syllabic word, phrase repetition, interjection, revision, prolongation, tense pause. 7/100 words dysfluent, no accessory behaviors, no feeling or attitudes. Emerging language, motor control emerging, stresses
Borderline stuttering - core behaviors, accessory behaviors, feeling, underlying processes
more than 7/100 words, more part word and whole 1 syllable and phrase repetitions and prolongations, few accessory behaviors, feelings not an issue. Explosive language
Beginning Stuttering - core behaviors, accessory behaviors, feeling, underlying processes
Child now stuttering more, more than 1/10, more tension, more struggle, onset often related to delayed language development or emotional events, repetitions more rapid, tension throughout speech mechanism, blocks begin. Accessory behaviors appear to be responses to muscle tension, at first voluntary. Feel frustrated, fear/helplessness/loss of control. Increased muscle tension and rate, effects of learning on stuttering (conditioning)
Intermediate Stuttering - core behaviors, accessory behaviors, feeling, underlying processes
Blocks are most noticeable core behavior, not surprised, tension not just laryngeal. Escape behavior more frequent, word and situation avoidances are common. Feel fear, helpless, shame and avoidance.
Advanced Stuttering- core behaviors, accessory behaviors, feeling, underlying processes
Older adolescents, stuttering pattern well-learned, life shaped by stuttering. Blocks, avoidances become expert, repetitions are more tense, rapid, irregular,
Spontaneous Fluency
that of normal speakers, no dysfluency
Controlled fluency
high effort, listener may hear differences in rate/rhythm
Acceptable Stuttering
Speaker has noticeable, not severe, dysfluency and feels comfortable, not embarrassed or fearful of stuttering
Assessment
Interview, speech sample, feelings and attitudes, other speech and language behaviors, other factors
Normal speaking rate
115-165 wpm, 162-230 spm for reading
Indirect treatment
Studying family interaction patterns, involve family
Direct treatment
modeling easy stutters, active participation by child
modification
seek to modify
fluency shaping
eliminate stuttering