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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Variable
A general class or category of objects, events or situations; will have a subject of different values levels or subcategories - two or more
categorical variable
anything that has a Subgroup gender-male/female or ethnicity - white/black
continuous variable
different values or levels GPA, depression scale, annual income, age, self-esteem
operational definition
To identify in concrete terms how the variable will be measured. Creating this means applying concrete terms to an abstract concept. e.g. peer aggression - the number of physical acts against class mates in the past week including hitting, pushing, pinching what makes them a juvenile delinquent- # of arrest in 6 months -gang membership, drug and alcohol abuse. Popularity has only one measurement that they all use.
Positive Linear Relationships
As the value of one variable increases so does the other if the value decreases then the other does
variables change in the SAME direction. E.G. the more education the more income, the more study the better grades, the less study the worse the grades, age of car increases and the miles increases.
Negative linear Relationships
The values on two variables on goes up the other goes down. variables change in different direction. E.G. the more depression the less self-esteem, more bad behavior the less GPA, marriage satisfaction goes down the more conflict
Curvilinear Relationships
the value on one variable is related to both increases and decreases in the value on the second variable
Reliability
the consistency of a measure or the extent to which you get the same results using the measure repeatedly E.G. SAT variable 60 gets about the same score every time they take it
True Score – observed score – error reliability
The measurement has to be as accurate as possible – if there are errors then the questions or the observation was not accurate. Does not give their true intelligence Need well written questions or people who are trained and know what they are looking for in observations. At lest two people should observe at the same time and they should have the same information found from the observations.
Test – Retest reliability
Involves administering the same test twice and determining how similar individuals scores are or the two tests – giving the same test again
– Problems: what might be the disadvantage of this approach? They might remember the test and what their answers were. Finding people how will come back twice to take the same test.
– This is done in new measures
Alternate Forms reliability
Retest with a different but similar test things that do not change over time. Intelligence: SAT or GRE, Temperament
– things that do change would not want to test: mood, who the are dating, peer relationships change
Internal Consistency reliability
Assesses whether people respond to items on measure in a similar way:
– have a list of questions that are almost the same and see if they answer them the same
– this is a good measure because all of the questions are answered at the same time. No coming back
13Split – half reliability
The correlation of an individual’s total score on one half of the test with the total score on the other half. Randomly divide the test in to two parts.
14Cronbach’s alpha
Calculate the correlation of each item with every other item compare questions 1,3, 5, & 7 with 2, 4, 6, 8
15Item- total
Examine the correlation of each item score with the total score based on all items
Variable
A general class or category of objects, events or situations; will have a subject of different values levels or subcategories - two or more
categorical variable
anything that has a Subgroup gender-male/female or ethnicity - white/black
continuous variable
different values or levels GPA, depression scale, annual income, age, self-esteem
operational definition
To identify in concrete terms how the variable will be measured. Creating this means applying concrete terms to an abstract concept. e.g. peer aggression - the number of physical acts against class mates in the past week including hitting, pushing, pinching what makes them a juvenile delinquent- # of arrest in 6 months -gang membership, drug and alcohol abuse. Popularity has only one measurement that they all use.
Positive Linear Relationships
As the value of one variable increases so does the other if the value decreases then the other does
variables change in the SAME direction. E.G. the more education the more income, the more study the better grades, the less study the worse the grades, age of car increases and the miles increases.
Negative linear Relationships
The values on two variables on goes up the other goes down. variables change in different direction. E.G. the more depression the less self-esteem, more bad behavior the less GPA, marriage satisfaction goes down the more conflict
Curvilinear Relationships
the value on one variable is related to both increases and decreases in the value on the second variable
Reliability
the consistency of a measure or the extent to which you get the same results using the measure repeatedly E.G. SAT variable 60 gets about the same score every time they take it
True Score – observed score – error reliability
The measurement has to be as accurate as possible – if there are errors then the questions or the observation was not accurate. Does not give their true intelligence Need well written questions or people who are trained and know what they are looking for in observations. At lest two people should observe at the same time and they should have the same information found from the observations.
Test – Retest reliability
Involves administering the same test twice and determining how similar individuals scores are or the two tests – giving the same test again
– Problems: what might be the disadvantage of this approach? They might remember the test and what their answers were. Finding people how will come back twice to take the same test.
– This is done in new measures
Alternate Forms reliability
Retest with a different but similar test things that do not change over time. Intelligence: SAT or GRE, Temperament
– things that do change would not want to test: mood, who the are dating, peer relationships change
Internal Consistency reliability
Assesses whether people respond to items on measure in a similar way:
– have a list of questions that are almost the same and see if they answer them the same
– this is a good measure because all of the questions are answered at the same time. No coming back
13Split – half reliability
The correlation of an individual’s total score on one half of the test with the total score on the other hand. Randomly divide the test in to two parts.
14Cronbach’s alpha
Calculate the correlation of each item with every other item compare questions 1,3, 5, & 7 with 2, 4, 6, 8
15Item- total
Examine the correlation of each item score with the total score based on all items
16Interrater Reliability
Used when two different people make judgments or ratings
– observational research – two observers watch children play with the same rating system – they should rate the same way
17Validity
The measure adequately assess the variable it was designed to measure
– reliable but not valid
– does the IQ test actually measure the cognitive abilities like it clams to
18Construct Validity
How true the concept is
– a clerical test is done to see if they a qualified for the job, does it really test their clerical experience?
19Face Validity
Does the measure appear to be assessing the construct of interest according to experts in field.
– Do the questions look like they compare how close friends are to each other
20Criterion – Related Validity
How scores on your measure are related to other criterion, variable, or construct
1)Predictive Validity: 21
the extent to which the predictor variable is related to future behavior – SAT predict how you do in school – not very good predictor – GPA not good for college predictor
2)Concurrent Validity:22
two or more groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways. – Physicians would do better on a medical test then lawyers would – reading
3)Convergent Validity: 23
answers should converge related in predicted ways to other variables – have knowledge of the material do good on exam
4)Discriminant Validity: 24
differentiate not related to variables the construct should not be related to – quiz score does not relate to shoe size
25Nominal Scales
Consist of categories or labels – Sex, male/female – job titles, sales person, janitor, secretary, lawyer, teacher, etc – they have subgroups
26Ordinal Scales
Rank order differences: a continuum – College football Polls: each week each of the teams rank who is 1st 2nd or 3rd, but doesn’t say how close they are in the rank – Important: tell us about the rank order differences but there are no standard differences between people or things classified in the rank – birth order says who is 1st 2nd or 3rd but doesn’t not say how many years are between them.
27Interval Scales
Equal intervals between a series of numbers: what is typical on questionnaires – not only is the order of the different points important, but the difference between the points are meaningful – temperature, difference of 5 degrees between 70 and 75 degrees is equal to the difference between 110 and 115 degrees – GPA – how much paid in a year
28Ratio
Like interval scales, but has an absolute zero point – height, weight, length of time to do something – in our field it is difficult to distinguish between interval and ratio measures.
29Nonexperimental method
Relationships are studied by making observations or measures of the variables of interest. Behavior is observed as it occurs naturally.
30Experimental method
Involves direct manipulation and control of variables. The researcher manipulates the first variable of interest and then observes the response.
31Experimental control
All extraneous variables are kept constant. If a variable is held constant, it cannot be responsible for the results of the experiment. – effects of exercise, exercise group and the non exercise group are removed form the daily routine. Treat participants in all groups the same – Loftus experimenter on memory – both groups will witness the same accident, same person will ask the questions, condition will be same, the difference is the result of the method of questioning.
32Randomization
Ensures that the extraneous variable is just as likely to affect one experimental group as it is to affect the other group – participants in the exercise group have low income that causes stress, - to minimize the problem people are randomly select for each group – so both groups with have that same external problems.
33Independent Variable
The manipulated variable – the participant has nothing to do with its occurrence. – the lighting in a room can be changed to determine how they do on tests if the lighting is different. Horizontal
34Dependant Variable
The measured score – the differences in what they got on the tests. Vertical