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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why is the individual of paramount importance in the science of human behavior.
Studying the individual allows you to understand changes in behavior.
What is the extirpation of parts method and what contributions did it make to science.
Brain function was mapped out by systematicaly destroying parts of the brain in animals and noting the effects of behavior.It demonstrated that important findings with wide generality were gleaned from single organisms.
What was the contribution of Fechner's JND's?
He was the first to apply statistical methods to psychological problems. Noticed that judgements of (JND)just noticeable differences in the sensory modalities varied somewhat from trial to trial.
What is meant by "introspection"
learning to describe experiences in an objective manner free from emotional or language restraints.(i.e., experience of seeing an object was described in terms of shapes and hues not aesthetic appeal
What was the contributionof the nonsense syllable to the science of behavior?
used to measure learning & forgetting. Through investigation of the effects of different variables on the efficiency of memory the retention curve (forgetting over time)was discovered. Repetition became the basis for the experimental measurement of memory.
What was Pavlov's contribution to the single case design?
His work on priciples of association and learning and his basic methodology. Additionally, his findings were gleaned from single organisms and strengthened by replicatio on other organisms.
What is meant by the "average man"?
The ideal man with variations due to failure on the part of nature. Variances in traits interpreted as failure on the part of nature.
What is the purpose of the "group comparison approach"
The discovery and measurement of individual differences.
What was Fisher's contribution to science?
Introducing agricultural terms to describe relevant designs and variables.Consideration of the problem of induction or inference. He worked out the porperties of statistical test which made it possible to estimate the relevance of data from one small group with certain characteristics to the universe of individuals with those characteristics.
What is meant by the "average man"?
The ideal man with variations due to failure on the part of nature. Variances in traits interpreted as failure on the part of nature.
What was the zeitgeist in psychological terms?
Group comparison and statistical estimation.
What is meant by the case study method?
the clinical base for the experimental study of single-cases and it retains an important funtion in present day applied research
What are the basic principles of applied research?
Definition of variables and manipulation of independent variables.
What is meant by the percentage of success in treated groups and what are the major problems with the approach?
average response to treatment. Major problem is that the major category in which clients were classified most always becomes unmanageably heterogeneous.
What is meant by the average response to treatment?
global treatment is successful on the average, therefore, the treatment is probably successful with any individual.
What is meant by clinical replication?
The administration by the same investigator or practitioner of a treatment package containing two or more distinct treatment procedures. Procedure would be administered in a specific setting to a series of clients presenting similar combinations of multiple behavioral and emotional problems.
What were the two effects of the "group design" approach.(1)
1-reinforced the growing conviction that the effects of psychotherapy could not be evaluated from case reports/created interest in evaluating psychotherapy through the scientific method.
What were the two effects of the "group design" approach.(2)
2. the emphasis on comparison b/w groups and quasi-control groups strengthened the notion that the logical way to evaluate psychotherapy was through the prevailing methodology in experimental psychology.(the between groups comparison design.)
What results did Bergin find regarding statistical averaging?
while some clients were improving others were getting worse, the results were cancelling each other out yielding an overall result of no effect.
What are 5 limitations of the group comparisons approach?
1. ethical objections
2. practical problems in collecting large number of patients
3.averaging of results over the group
4.generality of findings
5.intersubject variability.
What is meant by correlational methods?
Where dependent variables are correlated with therapist or patient variables wether within therapy or at some point after therapy.
What is the experimental approach?
Where independent variables are systematically manipulated.
What are naturalistic studies and how are they better "case studies"?
They involve live, unaltered, minimally controlled, unmanipulated natural psychotherapy sequences(experiments of nature). Clinicians are not restricted by precise definitions of an independent variable. They are better than case studies because measures of relevant variables are constructed and administered, sometimes repeatedly.
What is the major limitation of the correlational studies?
correlational studies are incapable of determining causal realtionships on the effects of treatment. THe most common error in these studies is the tendency to conclude that a relationship between two variables indicates that one variable is causing the another.
How is process research different than outcome research?
Process research is concerned with how changes took place in a given interchange between patient and therapist. Outcome research is concerned with what change took place as a result of treatment.
WHat were the finding of Cohen's (1976 & 1979) surveys?
40% of the mental health professionals think that no research exist that is relevant to practice, and the remainder believe that less than 20% of research articles have any applicability to professional settings.
What is the difference between idiographic and nomothetic approaches
idiographic is the individual approach and the nomothetic is the general or group approach.
What is the major contribution of the case study
the generation of the new hypothesis, which later may be subjected to more rigorous experimental scrutiny.
What is meant by representative case?
Shontz proposed the study. He was concerned with validating previously established personality constructs or measurement instruments on individuals who appear to possess the necessary behavior appropriate for the research problem.
What was Shapiro's contribution to the study of behavior.
established the beginnings of the development of a scientifically based methodology for evaluating effects of treatment within a single-case. Demonstrated that repeated measures within the individual could be extended to a logical end point and that this end point was the outcome of treatment. Also that independent variables in applied research could be defined and systematically manipulated within single-case, thereby fulfilling the requirements of a "true" experimental approach to the evaluation of therapeutic technique.
What is the time (term) series design
Time series design : this design goes beyond observations within treatment, however, to include observations from repeated measures in a period preceding and following a given intervention. Thus one can observe changes from a baseline as a result of a given intervention
What is the equivalent time (term) series design?
involves experimental manipulation of independent variables through alteration of treatments, as in the Shapiro and Ravenette study, or introduction and withdrawl of one treatment in an A-B-A fashion.