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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
According to North, what is the chief monument to Calvin’s theological views?
defending certain theological presumptions
Other than theology, what was Calvin’s training in?
What did Calvin emphasize in his Institutes?
The sovereignty of God, and saw man as laboring under God's predestination
Over what issue was Calvin involved in a long dispute with the town council of Geneva?
The question of control of excommunication.
What were the four types of church officers in Calvin’s organization?
Pastors, Teachers, Elders, Deacons3
What was the Consistory?
The pastors and ministers heard cases of church discipline
To what groups do the terms “Lutheran,” “Reformed,” and “Calvinist” refer?
The reformed followed the Swiss view points which transformed into Calvinists and Lutherans were Magisterial Churches
To what do the terms “Anabaptists,” Radical Reformation,” “Left Wing of the Reformation,” “Stepchildren of the Reformation,” “free churches,” “believers’ churches” and “confessing churches” refer?
These groups were more fundamentalist emphasized the Holy Spirit and were pacifists
What was the key issue over which these groups differed from the main line reformers?
A distinction between a state-church relationship and church independent of such relationships
What were the differences among the Spiritualists, Rationalists, and Anabaptists?
Spiritualists insisted on the leading of an inner light; Rationalists were intellectually oriented; Anabaptists a believers church not infant baptism
How was Servetus connected to Calvin?
He was burned in Geneva by Calvin and his followers
Who was influential in the establishment of modern Unitarians?
Fausto Sozzini
In what city did the radicals institute polygamy before eventually being wiped out?
Munster nearby German Westphalia
Who was the leader of the Mennonites?
Menno Simons
What group splintered off the Mennonites?
According to North, by the end of the 16th century what were the theologians most concerned with?
The defending certain theological presumptions
Who was it that began questioning some of the presuppositions of Calvinism?
Jacobus Arminius
What were his followers called?
Who persuaded Calvin to stay in Geneva?
William Farel
On what basis did Calvin believe the church could be organized?
a systematic reproduction of the practices of the primitive church
What was the role of the elders?
disciplinary officials
How often did Calvin believe communion ought to be practiced?
From where did many of Calvin’s supporters in Geneva come?
Whom did Calvin make the head of the college he started in Geneva?
Theodore Beza
What was the “horrible” doctrine of Calvinism that ultimately became its “stumbling block”?
What was the confession of Schleitheim?
The Anabaptist Confessions of what the true church does
Who were Bernard Rothman and John of Leyden and with what were they associated?
Rothman was a former Lutheran minister, who gained control of the city council; Leyden was a Dutch prophet and ex-innkeeper,also became King of New Zion he thought he was called to make the city of New Jerusalem. They thought that Munster was the only city, and the whole world would perish but, Munster would be saved.
What practice of the Hutterites was inspired by Acts of the Apostles?
The community of goods was the practice of true Christians
What was the source of conflict that split the Mennonite movement for a time in 1556 and 1557?
Rutgers wife believed she ought not shun her husband and she herself was excommunicated
Who were the Socinians?
A group from the Anabaptist movement whose bond of union was more directly theological, and were also known as Arians and Unitarians
Who was Sozzini?
He was an Italian leader of the Unitarians, who sought admission to the church of Rakow. His most celebrated work was On the Saving Work of Christ
Who was the wife of Henry VIII and mother of Mary?
Catherine of Aragon
What was the fate of William Tyndale?
burned at the stake
Who received the title “Defender of the Faith” and why?
King Henry VIII, because he rushed to write refutations supporting the seven sacraments
Who was Henry’s Chancellor who hoped to be pope?
Cardinal Worsley
Who was the new Archbishop of Canterbury who supported Henry’s position?
Thomas Cranmer
According to North, what was the change Henry made in the church in England and how did the upheaval in England contrast with the reform on the continent?
The King was the head of the church instead of the pope; had nothing to do with doctrine, indulgences, etc.
What was the significance of the 1549 Book of Common Prayer?
It was an attempt to develop a service ritual that would be common throughout all of England
Who was responsible for the executions of Latimer, Ridley, and Cranmer?
Bloody Mary
What are the Thirty-Nine Articles?
The older forty-two articles reworked; The strongly Calvinistic Statement, it remains the basic definitive statement for the Anglican church
Know about Patrick Hamilton
Scotlands first Protestant martyr
Who was Mary, Queen of Scots, and what was her significance?
She was the daughter of James V and Mary of Guise became heir to the throne at the age of six days old
What was the attitude of Kings James I toward the “pilgrims
He denied them in England
Who were Thomas Torquemada, St. Teresa of Avila, and Ignatius Loyola?
Grand Inquisitor, Spanish Monk, and founder of the Jesuits
What 16th century Catholic was known for writing books on mystical experiences, established several reformed monasteries, and was a major influence in uplifting the piety of the common people?
St. Teresa of Avila
Who were known as the “shock troops” of the papacy
the Jesuits
Who was the first of the reforming popes?
Paul III
What was the “defenestration of Prague” and why was it significant?
When protestants threw imperial representatives out of the castle window in Prague, "igniting" Europe
Who became known as the Moravian Brethren?
Protestants driven out of Czechoslovakia
Who were the Huguenots?
French Protestants
What was the St. Bartholomew’s Massacre?
Where 70,000 Huguenots were killed in 1572
Who was Henry of Navarre?
The nominal leader of the Huguenots, later Henry IV
What was the Edict of Nantes? Who revoked it?
An edict decreed by Henry IV granting Protestants new liberties and privileges; revoked by Louis XIV
According to North, what ended religion as an issue in international conflict in Europe?
The Peace of Westphalia
What was the Edict of Nantes?
An edict decreed by Henry IV granting Protestants new liberties and privileges
During the time of the Protestant reformation what was all Protestant missionary activity directly related to, according to North?
Directly related to the planting of colonies, mostly in the New World of North America by the English
Who was the 16th century Roman Catholic Missionary to Japan?
Francis Xavier
What was Matthew Ricci known for?
He mastered the Chinese language presented christianity as the fulfillment of Confucianism, ; he founded the first Catholic Church at Nanking in 1509, and in 1601 he presented a clock to the Chinese Emperor that chimed the hours.
What monastic order was dissolved in 1773, dealing a severe blow to Roman Catholic missions efforts?
The Jesuit Order
Who was Thomas Cromwell?
One of Wolsey's lieutenants who wanted King and parliament to rule, not Pope
What did the 1534 Act of Supremacy declare?
The king as supreme head of the church of England
What Archbishop stating that his oath of fidelity to the Pope was not binding if it was against the laws of God or the realm?
Thomas Cranmer
What does Chadwick consider the most disastrous act of Queen Mary’s reign?
Her marriage to Philip of Spain
Who was the first of the Protestants to be burned during Mary’s reign?
John Rogers
What were the results in England of Mary’s persecution of the reformers?
It (somewhat) strengthened the Protestant position
Who was the daughter of Anne Boleyn?
Queen Elizabeth
Who succeeded Mary as Queen of England?
Queen Elizabeth
Who was Cardinal Ximenes? What university did he create?
Queen Isabella's confessor; University of Alcala
What was the Polyglot Bible?
A six volume Bible in Greek, Hebrew, and Latin texts, and a critical apparatus
What religious order does Chadwick consider to be second to the Jesuits as a great religious order of the Counter-Reformation?
The Capuchins
What would be the single theme running through the endeavors of the Catholic Reformation?
The quest for a more adequate clergy, better trained and better-instructed priests, priest residents in their parishes, bishop resident in their sees, pastors fervent and self-sacrificing and missionary-minded, trained as confessors, celibate, mortified, able to teach in school, wearing canonical dress; a priesthood uncorrupted and incorruptible, educated and other worldly.
What contrast does Chadwick draw between Luther and Loyola?
During the weary months Loyola devoted himself to austerity, praying for seven hours a day, flagellating himself three times a day, rising at midnight for prayer, leaving his hair and nails uncut, begging his bread; Luther was the opposite; both felt that such endeavors failed to bring peace of mind.
Who were Contarini and Caraffa? How were they different? Which became Pope Paul IV?
They were appointed to the General Council by Pope Paul III; also appointed to a commission of nine in 1536 to produce a memorandum on reform; in 1537 they issued a report of a select committee (Consilium de Emendanda Ecclesia); Their difference was Contarini patronized the early Jesuits and Caraffa organized the Theatines; Caraffa became Pope Paul IV in 1555.
What was the difference between what the Pope and Emperor wanted the council of Trent to deal with?
The Emperor wanted the Council to meet in Germany and the Pope never wanted the Council to meet.
What did the council of Trent declare about the value of the unwritten traditions?
Were to be received with equal reverence
According to Chadwick what was the most important of all measures decreed by the Council of Trent?
It ordered that the Bishop of every diocese where no university existed should establish a seminary to train boys and young men to the priesthood.
What were the “Reductions”?
The most successful attempt at a native reservation of Paraguay, among the tribe of Guaranis.
What method of conversion did Xavier follow?
The method of mass conversion
What religious order was known for accommodating to the customs and beliefs of non-Christians?
The Dominicans carried to its limit by the Jesuits
In what country was there near total spectacular and calamitous destruction of the Christian church through persecution?
Where was the center of organization and advice for French Huguenots?
What was the Colloquy of Poissy and what was the result?
A meeting of the theologians of both sides, in an effort to make them live together; The Protestants won legal recognition
What set off the “Wars of Religion”?
On March 1, 1562, the Duke of Guise and 200 armed men halted at Vassy in Champagne toward his journey to Paris; The Duke of Guise took possession of the king and Catherine de Medici setting off the War of Religions
What does Chadwick refer to as the “tragedy of the Reformation”?
War of Religions
What did Henry of Navarre do to gain the French throne?
He converted to Catholicism, saying "Paris is Worth the Mass"
What was the response of Pope Clement VIII to the Edict of Nantes?
"I am the most grieved and disconsolate person in the world, I see the most cursed edict that I could imagine, whereby liberty of conscience is granted to everyone, which is the worst thing in the world, I absolved him and recognized him as king, and in return for all of this I shall become the laughing stock of the world"
What was the result of the religious wars in the Netherlands?
It divided the people into warring parties
What were the two alliances that were formed by Protestants and Catholics in 1608 and 1609?
The Catholic League, headed by Maximilian of Bavaria; The Evangelical Union to defend Protestant states attacked in contravention of the Peace of Augsburg.
Up until what year was the Thirty Years War a religious war, according to Chadwick?
What did the Peace of Westphalia add that had been missing from the Peace of Augsburg?
That its protection was now extended to the Reformed as well as the Protestants and the Lutherans.
According to Chadwick, what did the Reformation make possible?
a toleration
Who was it that argued that Heretics should be punished in the work Whether Heretics Should be Punished, etc.?
Who opposed this position in the work Whether Heretics Are to Be Persecuted?
Sebastian Castellio
According to Chadwick, upon what did the case for toleration rest during this era?
upon expediency
according to Chadwick, what was the greatest liturgical innovation of the Reformation?
The congregational hymn
What did every Reformer agree about the old church music?
It was to elaborate and ought to be simplified
What was the Reformed churches view toward instrumental music in worship?
They would not permit organs
How did this differ from the Lutheran churches?
Luther had not much liked organs but,they survived in many Lutheran churches, making possible the combination of congregation and choir and organ. founded one of the cheif glories of Protestant church music, the chorale
What was they typical Protestant view toward art?
They did not object to art as long as it was not obtrusive in church
Following the Reformation what were the two ways the Western Church viewed the Bible in relation to the Church?
Half the western church chose the modern church as the key to understanding the Bible, the other half chose the Bible as the judge of the modern church.
By 1650 how had the theological interest of the Reformation shifted?
From justification by faith