Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Grubb (1999) Honored but Invisible
Standardized testing - do not take in isolation
Remedial ed - work into schedule
Course curriculum - applied in content learning
Education should be personalized
Roueches' (1994) Those who tempt fate....
Standardized testing - academics not the only thing (socioeconomic)
Remedial ed - do all up front
Curriculum - not personalized no motivation
Cohen & Brawer Fundamental Question
Does the community college succeed in democratizing higher education?
Dougherty Fundamental Question
Is the community college a gateway of opportunity for disadvantaged students or is it a blind alley?
Critics - How should CC change?
Raise student awareness (Zwerling)
Critics - How should CC change?
Convert 2 yr to 4 yr (Dougherty)
Equate funding 2 yr & 4 yr (Astin)
Focus on vocational ed (Clowes & Levin)
Abandon open access (Eaton)
Focus on individual not group (Cohen & Brawer, Adelman)
Accept the allocative function and focus on learning (Cohen & Brawer)
The Truman Report (1947)
The President's Commission on Higher Education

George Zook
Reasons Americans seeking higher education
Science and technology
Diversity within America
Aftermath of war
Atomic age - good vs evil
Truman Report (1947)
Education for a better nation
International Understanding
Social improvement
Truman Report (1947)
Education for All
Economic barriers
Race and religious barriers
Regional variations
Restricted curriculum
Truman Report (1947)
Equalizing Opportunity
Need for General Education
Interrelationship between gen ed and vocational ed
Education Adjusted to Needs - CC
Jess Bogue
The Community College (1950)
Bogue's Issues
Consistent organization
Local vs state control
gen ed integrated with voc ed
Find the right teachers
Student guidance
The G.I. Bill of 1944
Wanted to keep many war veterans out of the labor market.
1930's - Factors impeding growth of CC
excessive and inefficiency in K-12
opposition to taxes for post sec ed
state teachers college opposed
U of I considering extension centers
Early factors supporting CC
HS Superintendents
Press, industry and business
U of I and ISBE
Post WWII and GI Bill
1960's Voc Ed Act of 1963
provided funding to expand curriculum beyond transfer
Junior College Act (1965)
state funding for building CC campuses
establish CC district through out state
JC Board established
JC part of higher ed
What slowed development of JC?
fiscal consesrvatism
lacck of champion in Springfield
perpetual funding problems
uncertin focus and "product"
JC began to flourish why?
JCs now part of higher education to accredit nursing program
commitment of feds to adult & voc ed
other institutions of higher ed flourished, JC no threat
Truman Report ( 1947)

Objectives of General Education 1
develop code of behavior
participate as informed responsible citizen
recognize diversity/internat'l peace
apply scientific thought to problems
understand ideas of others and express own
Truman Report ( 1947)

Objectives of General Education 2
attain emotiona and social adjustment
maintain & improve health
enjoy art lit music culture
knowledge and attitudes for family life
choose socially & personally satisfying vocation
critical & constructive thinking
Barbara Townsend
Transfer Issues
Cohen and Brawer (2003)

Summary of Criticisms 1
empahisize voc ed
social & economic stratification
limit upward mobility (race,gender,workingclass)
remedial ed not rigorous
diminished access & opportunity
doesn't meet ed goals
Cohen and Brawer (2003)

Summary of Criticisms 2
doesn't ensure transfer
doesn't ensure graduation
doesn't purport economic benefits
doesn't emphasize degree completion or transfer
not a clear pathway from HS to CC to 4 yr
Deegan & Tillery (1985)

Generations of the CC 1
Generation 1 - before 1930 grades 13 & 14 in HS
Generation 2 - 1930-1950 JC break away from HS slow growth emphasis on gen ed voc ed & student services
Deegan & Tillery (1985)

Generations of the CC 2
Generation 3 - 1950-1970
JC --> CC b y Truman Report
states develop CC system
dramatic growth
open door policy
Generation 4 - Comprehensive CC 1970 - mid 1980
broaden mission
comm service & non credit prog
non traditional deliver
voc tech programs
Deegan & Tillery (1985)

Generations of the CC 3
Generation 5 Present
major role in UG education
increasing minority students
emphasis on remedial ed
emphasis on voc tech ed
renewed partnership with HS
Patricia Cross (1985)

Mission & Priorities for 5th Generation CC 1
Patricia Cross (1985)

Mission & Priorities for 5th Generation CC 2
Comprehensive Focus

career education
remedial ed
community ed
liberal arts
general ed
Patricia Cross (1985)

Mission & Priorities for 5th Generation CC 3
Vertical Focus

transfer function
relationship with HS
articulation with 4 yr college
liberal arts, transfer counseling, stress retention
most prestigious
Patricia Cross (1985)

Mission & Priorities for 5th Generation CC 4
Horizontal Focus

relationship with business/industry
advocate improve local comm
vision of CC hub of all educ
growth of adult and non trad learners
Patricia Cross (1985)

Mission & Priorities for 5th Generation CC 5
Integrated Focus

linkages within college
lib arts
multidisciplinary courses
lifelong learners
Patricia Cross (1985)

Mission & Priorities for 5th Generation CC 6
Remedial Focus

CC playing role in youth problem
job pre, apprenticeships, guidance
improve academic programs
Changing attitudes towards JC.
Universities got funding for building. Gave sense of permanence and importance.
Vets went to JC. No competition.
Teacher's college became universities.(1960s)
1910 Carnegie Commission
credit hour developed as a result of the industrial economy
1960s Truman Report translated into legislation
Why did it take so long? Too visionary and racial issues had an impact.
Cohen and Brawer (2003)

Definition of vocational.
agriculture, trades, sales;
Cohen and Brawer (2003)

Definition of semiprofessional.
engineering techs, general assistants, lab techs, others in manufacturing, business, and service occupations
Cohen and Brawer (2003)

Definition of technical.
prep for work in scientific and industrial fields
Cohen and Brawer (2003)

Definition of occupational.
most encompassing; all curricula leading to employment
Cohen and Brawer (2003)

Definition of career education.
1950s; lower school. efforts of orienting oung people toward workplace
1970s; programs focus on career devvelopment.
1990; School to Work
Smith-Hughes Act of 1917
funded secondary ag, trade and industry and home ec programs
Vocational Ed Act of 1963
supported occup prep below BA level
serve all students - academically, socio-econ and physically disadvantaged.
Vocational Ed Act of 1998
expand fed govt's role
increase support postsecond tech programs bus, health & engineering
emphasis on youth unemployement
curriculum articulation efforts
professional development
Carl Perkins Voc and Applied Technology Act of 1984
Educ/training for gender sterotyping and spec needs
links between secondary and post sec
tech prep
accountability & student outcomes
Carl Perkins Voc and Applied Technology Act Amendments of 1990 (Perkins II)
increase academics with skills training
fund disadvantaged students
integrate academic/vocational
accountability academic achievement
tech prep and New American High Schools (largest funding)
Carl Perkins Voc and Applied Technology Act of 1990
continued emphasis of 1990 prioritites
The Total Community College Curriculum (Cohen & Ignash, 1992 1
Increase in ESL
transfer rate higher if school has more liberal arts courses
urban college higher % of remedial courses
larger colleges higher % of specialized lib arts classes
The Total Community College Curriculum (Cohen & Ignash, 1992 2
college w/higher minority offer more lib arts
non-liberal arts classes can transfer equally as well
Townsend and Dever (1999)
Reverse Transfer Students

Undergraduate reverse transfer
Post baccalaureate reverse transfer
McGrath and Spear (1991)

The Remedialization of the Community College 1
rigorous coursework at periphery
transfer track duplicates university curriculum
difficult to define academic rigor
articulation agreements allow academics to fall
academic culture lowered to meet students
McGrath and Spear (1991)

The Remedialization of the Community College 2
Recommend for remedial ed
require for students who need it
segregate remedial ed students
define entrance requirements
if remedial limit # courses
provide noncredit prep courses
What the Collegiate Community College Means (Eaton, 1994) 1
Choose a vision (gleazer, parnell L& cohen/brawer)
redefine students' intellect opportunity
reduce ambiguitly about mission
restricting access
develop college prep exp outside of cc
What the Collegiate Community College Means (Eaton, 1994) 2
examine relationships to other levels of ed
build college exp for nontraditional students
learn from the critics
reconsider assoc degree
commit to teaching/learning research/scholarship
Early Purpose of CC
Fill gap between elem & university
Create effic orderly sys.
Provide Gen Ed
Create select method for universities
Replace poor quality small 4 yr colleges
Philosophies (1920-1945)
Aptitude testing
Social/economic stratification
Democratization with voc ed
Leaders of the Formative Period
William Rainey Harper
David Starr Jordan
Alexis F. Lange
Early Trend Data
1901 - Joliet Juniro College
1910 - 3 public junior colleges
1921-1922 - 70 public junior college and 137 private junior colleges
Harper's Reasons for the 2 yr colleges
Do lower work more thoroughly
Become an honest institution
Students can stop honorably at 2 yrs
Students can remain at home
Students are forced to the university
John Dewey - Leader of the Progressive Education Movement
Concern about social stability
wanted ed to build a social system based on democracy
Mold Children's minds
Alexis Lange
Higher ed for more people andits relationship to university education
Early Philosophies
Progressivism - distriubtive purpose of ed
Social Efficiency
German model of ed
Elitism = poverty is self-inflicted
Scientific method
William Chandler Bagley UIUC
Critic of progressive ed & JC
JC a way to control crime
Alexis F. Lange
Advocated social efficiency
Closely aligned with Harper and Jordan
Argued for voc ed 1918
Social control
Immigration: social burden and threat to whites
Fear of power of masses
David Starr Jordan
Advocated elitism
President of Stanford
Cardinal Principles of Sec. Ed (1918)
part of high school
prep and vocational ed
Smith Hughes 1917 - vocational ed in high schools
1920 Founding of AAJC
Mutual support
Shared interest & identity
Take a defensive position
Create common voice & org
Periods of CC Development in 20th Century
Brint and Karabel, Diverted Dream (1989)
1900 - 1920: Formative Period
1920 - 1945: Developmental Period
1945 - 1970: Take Off
1970 - Today: Great Transformation
Deegan & Tillery - Generations of CC
1900 - 1930: Generation 1 (extension of HS)
1930 - 1945: Generation 2 (Junior College)
1945 - 1970: CC
1970 - current: Comprehensive CC
Leaders of the 1920s thru 1940s
Leonard Koos
Walter Crosby Eells
Doak S. Campbell
Factors Influencing Early Growth of 2 yr Colleges
Increase in demand for HS & beyond
University sponsored & advoc
Continuation of Sec ed
Lack of other options
Support for voc ed curric
What significant events occurred in the 20th century to encourage community colleges (1920-1940)
1929: Depression
1932: Commission of Seven
1939: Commision on Terminal Education
Student intent on transfer
Leonard Koos
Committed to 6-4-4 Plan
(K-6, 7-10, 11-14)
Koos would like dual credit
Preparation for semi-prof
Capstone of sec ed
Social influence of CC and educate the masses
Walter Crosby Eells
Advocated 6-3-3-2
(K-6, 7-9, 10-12, JC)
Eells would not like dual credit
Assoc with higher ed
1929 National Commission report said increase transfer, Eells didn't like this He was elitist
Four Functions of CC

1. Popularizing fxn: educate masses
2. Preparatory fxn: prepare for transfer
3. Terminal fxn: Voc ed
4. Guidance fxn: testing and counseling student services
1932: Carnegie Report on Public Higher Education in CA
Commission of Seven

Teacher's colleges became 4 yr institutions
Legitimized CC
Communit college - comm ed for general civilized life
Calledthe California Model
Doak S. Campbell

Campbell's two conditions for the democratizing mission
1. must be available to all perosn, alike, supposedly upon equal terms
2. must provide trianing suitable to the needs of those it serves
Ideals of American Education
Lead to upward mobility
Create social efficiency
Relieve social ills
Enhance individual achievement
Improve the economy