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16 Cards in this Set

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White Blood Cells (total)
WBC
* 5,000-10,000/mm3
* total # of circulating white blood cells. Fight infection & react aginst foreign bodies or tissues. Part of CBC
* increase with:
-infection, inflammation, stress/trauma, tissue necrosis, leukemia, dehydration.
* decreas with:
-depressed bone marrow function, autoimmune disease, vitamin defeciency, drug toxicity
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
-increased WBC:
-check temp., s/s infection/inflammation, assess for any txt-antibiotics?
-decreased WBC:
protect client from exposure to infection
Red Blood Cells
RBC
female: 4.2-5.4 million/mm3
male: 4.7-6.1 million/mm3
* # of circulating RBC. part of a CBC, carry hemoglobin. 120 day viability (cycle)
-increased with:
COPD, congenital heart disease, severe dehydration, erythrocitosis
-decreased with:
anemia, hemorrhage, blood loss (or) dietary deficiency, bone marrow failure, pregnancy
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
increased RBC: assess fluid balance, assess resp. status
decreased RBC: assess fatigue, VS, dietary deficiencies (protein, iron), where is blood loss? or injury?
Hemoglobin (Hgb)
f-12-16 q/dl M-14-18 q/dl
total amt Hgb in blood. serves for O2 & CO2 transport, component of CBC
-increased with:
COPD, congenital heart disease, severe dehydration, erythrocitosis
-decreased with:
anemia, hemorrhage, blood loss (or) dietary deficiency, bone marrow failure, pregnancy
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
increased RBC: assess fluid balance, assess resp. status
decreased RBC: assess fatigue, VS, dietary deficiencies (protein, iron), where is blood loss? or injury?
Hematocrit (HCT)
f-37-47%, M 42-52%
* indirect measure of RBC # & volume. (%of total blood volume that is made up of RBC;s) component of CBC
-increased with:
COPD, congenital heart disease, severe dehydration, erythrocitosis
-decreased with:
anemia, hemorrhage, blood loss (or) dietary deficiency, bone marrow failure, pregnancy
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
increased RBC: assess fluid balance, assess resp. status
decreased RBC: assess fatigue, VS, dietary deficiencies (protein, iron), where is blood loss? or injury?
Sodium
Na+
136-145mEq/L
*component of serum electrolytes. Major cation in extracellular space. Sodium content in blood is balance of dietary intake & renal excretion.
-Na increased
increaed intake of sodium, excessive IV sodium, GI fluid loss-suctioning/vomiting, increaed sweating
Na decreaed:
decreaed intake or IV source, diarrhea, diuretic therapy, renal insufficiency
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess sources of sodium, assess I&O, assess edema, assess weight
Potassium (K)
3.5-5.0 mEq/L
-a serum electrolyte major cation in intracellular space. Balance (I & O out of cell) most important factor in maintaining membrane electrical potential (esp. neuromuscular tissue). need daily supply.
*increased with:
increased dietary or IV intake, renal failure, crush injuries/burns, hemolysis-, some diuretics, dehydration
*decreased with:
reduced dietary or IV intake, V&D, diuretics that pull out K+ when pulling out sodium & water
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess sources of potassium, (food, meds), assess cardiac status, assess diuretic use, monitor K levels, check I & O to assess renal function--need funcitoning kidneys when taking potassium
**when giving IV K, always diluted in IV solution, give via IV pump, never give IM, never give IV push
Chloride (Cl)
90-110 mEq/L
-a serum electrolyte extracellular anion; with other lytes, helps determine acid-base balance and hydration sttus. Follows sodium
*increased with:
increased dietary or IV intake, renal failure, crush injuries/burns, hemolysis-, some diuretics, dehydration
*decreased with:
reduced dietary or IV intake, V&D, diuretics that pull out K+ when pulling out sodium & water
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess sources of potassium, (food, meds), assess cardiac status, assess diuretic use, monitor K levels, check I & O to assess renal function--need funcitoning kidneys when taking potassium
**when giving IV K, always diluted in IV solution, give via IV pump, never give IM, never give IV push
Calcium
Ca+
9.0-10.5mg/dl
*to evaluate parathyroid function & calcium metablolism. needed for muscle contractility, cardiac funciton, neural transmission and blood clotting.
-increased with:
vit D intoxication, bone tumors, prolonged immobilizaiton, hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid controls calcium level)
-decreased with:
inadequate intake, Vit D deviciency, renal failure, hypoparathyroidism
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess intake of calcium & Vit D, renal function, cardiac function, constipation when calcium supplements given
Blood Urea Nitrogen
BUN
10-20 mg/dl
-indirect & rough measurement of renal function & glomerular filtration (if normal liver function exists) also measures liver funciton
-increased with:
renal failure, dehydration
-decreased with:
liver failure, overhydration
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess kidney function, check I&O
Creatinine
f- o.5-1.1 mg/dl
m- 0.6-1.2 mg/dl
-meaasures creatinine, catabolic phosphate, which is used in skeletal muscle contraction. totally excreted in kidney & directly proportional to renal excretory function
*increased with:
kidney disease, injur to skeletal muscle
*decreased with:
dibilitation, decreased muscle mass
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess kidney function,
asses I & O
Glocose (blood sugar)
FBS
70-105 mg/dl
measures glucose (blood sugar)level. controlled by insulin & glucagon.
*incresed with:
diabetes mellitus, acute stress, diuretic & steroid use, chronic renal failure
*decreased with:
insulin overdose, starvation
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess BS, stress/surgery/meds, diet, activity, insulin
hypoglycemia:shaking, sweating, anxiety, headache, slurred speech, confusion, hunger, pale
hyperglycemia:flushed, fatigue, headache, blurred vision, N & V, polyuria, polydyspia, polyphagie, fruity breath, coma
Cholesterol
<200 mg/dl
cholesterol testing done to determine CAD; also evaluates hyperlipidemias
*increased with:
familial hyperlipidemia, hypercholoesterolemian, increased dietary sources
*decreased with:
malabsorption, malnutrition
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess diet for increased fats, activity level, family history, weight, cardiac symptoms
Platelets (thrombocytes)
150,000-400,000/mm3
-actual # (thrombocytes) platelets-formed in bone marrow--helps maintain blood vessel integrity. part of clotting process.
*increased platelets:
malignancies--leukemias/lymphomas (cells will be immature)
*decreased with:
hemorrhage, leukemias, chemotherapy
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
with decreased platelets;
assess bruising/bleeding
Prothrombin Time
protime
PT
11.0-12.5 seconds
-assess clotting ability of blood
*increaed with:
coumadin (warfarin) therapy
(anticoagulant therapy), herditary factor diseases, vit K deficiency
*decreased with:
none significant
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:
assess therapeutic range, coumadin dose &frequency, bruising/bleeding, know antidote for overdose of coumadin=Vit K
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
(APTT) (PTT)
APTT 30-40 seconds, PTT 60-70 seconds
-assesses clotting ability of blood
*increased with: heparin therapy, herdedity factor deficiencies, Vit K deficiencies
*decreased with: extensive cancer
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:assess therapeutic range 1.5-2x control, heparin dose & frequency, bruicing & bleeding, know antidot for overdose for heparin--protamine sulfate
ass
Urinalysis
UA
appearance-clear color-amber yellow, odor-aromatic,
ph-4.6-8.0 (avg 6.0)
protein 0-8 mg/dl
specfic gravity-1.005-1.030
negative for: glucose, leukocytes, nitrites, ketones, crystals, casts, RBC, WBC; RBC < 2; WBC-0-4
*routine diagnostic & screening test. helps to evaluated kidney function &other metabolic processes.
TEST SIGN;
low sg-dilute urine;
high sg-concentrated urine,
+ glucose=diabetes,
+ketones=assess diabetes,DKA
+WBC=infection,
+nitrites=kidney disease
+RBC=assess menses, UTI, irritation
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: collect specimen correctly, asses I & O