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107 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
when does the heart begin to beat?
when the developing person is an embryo
what is the substance that can cross the placenta and harm an unborn child?
a teratogen
If research suggest that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a
teratogen
What is one of the most consistently damaging teratogen?
alcohol.
the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include what?
mental retardation
twin and adoption studies have been most helpful for teasing apart the influences of what?
nature and nurture
Although they may share the same home environment, adopted non-twin siblings are LEAST likely to share similar
personalities
Which psycologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive development?
Jean Piaget
Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child
develops through a series of stages
according to Piaget, schemas are
people's frameworks for understanding their experiences
Cognition refers to
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
which of the following is the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight?
sensorimotor
according to Piaget's, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during what stage?
the Preoperational stage
according to Piaget, the capacity to pretend to interact with an imaginary playmate emerges during what stage?
the preoperational stage
according to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
the difficulty seeing things from another person's point of view.
according to Piaget, children com to understand that the quantity of substance remains the same despite changes in its shapes during
concrete operational stage
according to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to
reason abstractly
providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
secure attachment
aaron cried when his mother left him in the church nursery. He was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. aaron showed signs of
insecure attachment
in a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants who are securely attached to their mothers are most likely to
use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings
mary is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her infant daughter. according to Erikson, Sara is likely to
form a lifelong attitude of basic trust towards the world.
severe prolonged child sexual abuse places children at risk for
substance abuse
two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they
impose rules and expect obedience
parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
authoritative
authoritative parents are likely to have children who
have high self-esteem and are self-reliant
in general, children raised in the same family have different personalities. this most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to
parental influences.
in comparison to parental influence, peer influence is
more likely to affect a child's english language accent
according to Erickson, trust is to
adolescence
according to erickson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
adolescent
an elaborate ceremony used to celebrate a person's emergence into adulthood is an example of a
rite of passage
older adults who feel satisfied when reflecting on their lives demonstrate what erikson called a sense of
integrity
adolescence is to identity as late adulthood is to
integrity
human egg contains
an X chromosomes
human sperm contains
either an X or a Y chromosomes
gender role refers to
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
gender identity refers to
the sense of being male or female
motivation is defined by psychologists as
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal
three perspectives that psychologists have used to explain motivation include an emphasis on arousal, a hierarchy of motives and
drive reduction
according to drive-reduction theory, needs to refer to
basic bodily requirements
for a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce
a drive
which theory would be the most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?
arousal theory
the lowest level need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs includes the need for
food and water
according to Maslow, our need for ____ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for _____
adequate clothing; self-esteem
most humans are genetically predisposed to
form close enduring relationships with fellow humans
foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by
belongingness needs
as her professor distributed the rest to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her
sympathetic nervous system
which division of the nervous system calms the body after an emergency has passed?
parasympathetic
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her
personality
Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from
mental processes
according to Freud, the unconscious is
the thoughts wishes feelings and memories of which we are largely unaware
free association is central to the process of
psychoanalysis
a psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax and say whatever comes to mind, no matter how unimportant or silly it might seem. The therapist is using a technique known as
free association
according to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that seeks immediate gratification of basic drives is the
id
when 16yr old Hud received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase an expensive new car. he decided instead, to deposit all the money into a savings account for his college education. Freud would have suggested that Hud shows signs of a
strong ego
According to Freud, the part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment is the
superego
Jan is disgusted by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Jan's
superego
the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. the ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in way that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
ego and the reality principle
according to Freud, defense mechanism are used by the
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized
underlies all the other defense mechanisms. banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness.
repression
in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic remains fixated
regression
the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. thus people may express feelings that are opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
reaction formation
people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
projection
offers self justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
rationalization
shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
displacement
parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of them are very likely using the defense mechanism of
reaction formation
the defense mechanism by which we disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
projection
Neo-Freudian theorist proposed the existence of a collective unconscious in personality development
Jung
Jung said that the ________ _________ explains why, for many people spiritual concerns are deeply rooted and why people in different cultures share certain myths and images such as a mother as a symbol for nurturance
collective unconscious
Maslow placed ______ at the base of his hierarchy of needs
bodily needs
Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for
self-actualization
theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and emphatic?
Rogers
according to Carl Rogers, unconditional positive regard involves
total acceptance
according to the social-cognitive perspective, behavior is influenced by the interaction between persons and
situations
many psychologists consider ____ to be the center of personality and the organizer of our thoughts, feelings and actions
the self
accepting ourselves without relying on the approval of others best illustrates
secure selfesteem
a willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the characteristics of
individualism
a collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of
social harmony
psychologists define an ongoing pattern of behavior as disordered when it is
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
alexis is socially withdrawn and as few close friends. this behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
preventing her from functioning effectively
the medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
social circumstances and psychological factors
that mind and body of inseparable is most clearly emphasized by
the biopsychosocial approach
professor mac emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self focused thinking, rejections from others, and low serotonin levels. the professor's emphasis best illustrates the
biopsychosocial approach
a fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
bias our perceptions of the labeled person
a person is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy
generalized anxiety disorder
a person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread
panic disorder
a person feels irrationally and intensely afraid of a specific object or situation
phobias
a person is troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions
OCD
a person is troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions
OCD
a person has lingering memories, nighmares, and other symptoms for weeks after a severely threatening uncontrollable event
posttraumatic stress disorder
a person has lingering memories, nighmares, and other symptoms for weeks after a severely threatening uncontrollable event
posttraumatic stress disorder
a panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are
more intense and less prolonged
a panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are
more intense and less prolonged
a conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative disorder
a conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
identity disorder
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
personality disorder
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrong doing, even toward friends and family members. may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever conartist
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrong doing, even toward friends and family members. may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever conartist
antisocial personality disorder
the antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
a lack of guilt feelings
the antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
a lack of guilt feelings
which of the following involves impairment or distress resulting from the abuse of psychoactive drugs?
substance related disorder
which of the following involves impairment or distress resulting from the abuse of psychoactive drugs?
substance related disorder
painful withdrawal symptoms are most likely to occur with
substance related disorder
painful withdrawal symptoms are most likely to occur with
substance related disorder