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16 Cards in this Set

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How to piRNAs mediate the silencing the expression of transposons?
By recruiting HP1a to transposon sites to induce heterochromatin formation resulting in silencing.
What as the phenotype of mice exposed to high levels of ethanol?
Delayed growth and reduced overall growth.

Alteration in development of the heart, caudal neural tube, brain vesicles, optic system, and limb buds.

One third showed neural tube opening abnormality, frequently in the head fold.
What caused cellular depletion of neurons?
Aberrant activation of endogenous apoptotic/death.

No evidence for involvement of msx-2 and BMP4
What is evidence for canonical WNT signaling in regulating lung development?
Canonical WNT signaling and signaling through BMP receptors is required for the specification of respiratory progenitors
Way to generate diabetic mouse model
Beta cell specific inactivation of pdx1
Purpose of cyclosporin injection into ES cells
Prevent graft rejection
Manipulation to perturb DISC1 and phenotype
shRNA

phenotype: accelerated dendritic growth, soma hyperthropy, ectopic dendrites and aberrant positioning
INK4 KO vs. over expression
KO were more prone to cancer

over expression reduced the incidence of cancer
Disease attributed stem cells and model
cancer; propagating cancer cells are maintain by a subpopulation of these tumor cells reverting to a stem cell like state
Origin of mitochondria and mechanism of degrading the undesired mitochondria?
Maternally derived;

sex-specific, specie-specific ubiquination
Cell types contributing to vascularized cardiac tissue
cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth cells
TF from critical to inducing myogenic program, time of expression and experiment showing its ability to ameliorate muscular dystrophy
Pax7

proliferation

condition pax7 expression in human ES and iPS derived myogenic progenitors, which were transplanted into dystrophic mice muscle and produced dystrophin positive myofibers with superior strenght
TF that work STAT5, disease related to the molecular loop
Ebf1 and Pax5; acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Major changes in DNA methylation during development
DNA methylation silencing of pluripotency factos

Loss of DNA methylation in specifying germ line
Fundamental questions in developmental biology
How fertilized eggs give rise to the adult body and how does the body produce yet another body
Temperature dependent sex determination and example
Sex of an embryo is determined by environmental cues instead of genetic cues

Red-ear slider turtle