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93 Cards in this Set

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Acute Stroke
Onset of stroke symptoms lasting for a few hours
Agnosia
A cognitive disability, inability to acknowledge one side of body or visual field
Aneurysm
Weak or thin spot on an artery wall balooned out and filled with blood
Anoxia
A state of alnmost no oxygen delivery to a cell, low energy, possible cell death
Anticoagulants
A drug therapy used to prevent the formation of blood clots that become lodged in cerebral arteries
Antiplatelet Agents
A type of anticoagulant drug therapy that prevents the formation of blood clots, prevents the accumulation of platelets that form blood clots (EX: Aspirin)
Antithrombotic
A type of anticoagulant drug therapy that prevents the formation of blood clots by inhibiting coagulating actions (EX: Warafin)
Aphasia
Inability to understand or create speech, writing, or language, due to damage in speech centers of the brain
Apoplexy
A historical, obsolete term for a cerebral stroke
Apoptosis
A form of planned cell death, cell suicide, triggered by genetic signal, irreversible
Apraxia
A movement disorder, inability to perform skilled or purposeful voluntary movements, caused by damage in the brain responsible for voluntary movement
Arteriography
An X-ray of the carotid artery taken when a special dye is injected into the artery
Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
A congenital disorder characterized by a complex tangled web of arteries and veins
Atherosclerosis
A blood vessel disease characterized by deposits of lipid material on inside walls of large-medium sized arteries, thick, hard, brittle, and prone to leaking
Atrial Fibrillation
Irregular beating of the left atrium of the heart
Blood-Brain Barrier
An elaborate network of supportive brain cells, called glia, surround blood vessels, protect neurons from toxic effects
Carotid Artery
An artery, located on either side of the neck, supplied brain with blood
Carotid Endarectomy
Surgery used to remove fatty deposits from the carotid arteries
Central Stroke Pain
Pain caused by damage to an area in the thalamus, mixture of sensations, heat , cold, burning, tingling, numbness, sharp stabbing pain
Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF)
The flow of blood through the arteries that lead to the brain, called cerebrovascular system
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Clear fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrovascular Disease
A reduction in the supply of blood to the brain, narrowing of arteries through the buildup of plaque on inside of walls
Cholesterol
A waxy substance, produced naturally in the liver, found in foods
Clipping
Surgical procedure for treatment of brain aneurysms, clamping
Computed Tomography (CT)Scan
A series of cross-sectional X-rays of the brain and head
Coumadin
A commonly used anticoagulant, also known as Warfarin
Cytokines
Small, hormone-like proteins released by leukocytes, endothelial cells, promote inflammatory immune response to an injury
Cytotoxic Edema
A state of cell compromise involving influx of fluids and toxic chemicals into a cell causing swelling
Detachable Coil
A platinum coil inserted into an artery in the thigh, coil is released into the aneurysm creating an immune response
Duplex Doppler Ultrasound
A diagnostic imaging technique, image of artery formed by bouncing sound waves off the moving blood, measures the frequency changes
Dysarthria
A language disorder, difficulty with speaking or forming words
Dysphagia
Trouble eating and swallowing
Edema
The swelling of a cell that results from the influx of large amounts of water or fluid into the cell
Embolic Stroke
A stroke caused by an embolus
Embolus
A free roaming blood clot that usually forms in the heart can travel up to the brain
Edothelial Wall
A flat layer of cells that make up the innermost lining of a blood vessel
Excitatory Amino Acids
Subset of neurotransmitters, proteins released by one neuron into the space between two neurons, excitatory state
Extracranial/Intracranial (EC/IC) Bypass
A type of surgery that restores blood flow to a blood-deprived area of brain by routing a healthy artery
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI)
A type of imaging that measures increases in blood flow within the brain
Glia
Also called neuroglia, supportive cells of NS make up BBB, provide nutrients and oxygen Ex: oligodendroglia, astrocytes, and microglia
Glutamate
Also known as glutamic acid, an amino acid that acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
Hemiparesis
Weakness on one side of the body
Hemiplegia
Paralysis on one side of the body
Hemorrhagic Stroke
Sudden bleeding into or around the brain
Heparin
A type of anticoagulant
High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
Good cholesterol
Homeostasis
A state of equillibrium or balance among fluids
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
Persistently high arterial blood pressure < or = to 140/90
Hypoxia
A state of decreased oxygen delivery to a cell
Incidence
The extent or frequency of an occurrance, # of specific new events in a given time
Infarct
The area of tissue that is dead or dying because of loss of blood supply
Infarction
The sudden loss of blood supply to tissue, causing the formation of an infarct
Interleukines
A group of cytokines, related proteins secreted by leukocytes and involved in inflammatory immune response of the ischemic cascade
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Occurs when a vessel within the brain leaks blood into the brain
Ischemia
A loss of blood flow to tissue, caused by an obstruction of the blood vessel, usually in the form of plaque stenosis or blood clot
Ischemic Cascade
A series of events lasting for several hours/ days following the initial ischemia, results in extensive cell death
Ischemic Penumbra
Areas of damage, but still living, brain cells arranged in a patchwork pattern around areas of dead brain cells
Ischemic Stroke
Ischemia in the tissues of the brain
Lacunar Infarction
Occlusion of small artery, small area of dead brain tissue, called l______, i_______, caused by stenosis of small arteries, called small vessel disease
Large Vessel Disease
Stenosis in large arteries of the cerebrovascular system
Leukocytes
Blood proteins involved in the inflammatory immune response of the ischemic cascade
Lipoprotein
Small globules of cholesterol covered by a layer of protein, produced in the liver
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
Bad cholesterol
Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)
An imaging technique involving injection of dye into the blood vessel, creates an image of flowing blood through vessel
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Scan
A type of imaging involving the use of magnetic fields to detect subtle changes in the water content of tissues
Mitochondria
The energy producing organelles of the cell
Mitral Annular Calcification
A disease of the mitral valve of the heart
Mitral Valve Stenosis
A disease of the mitral heart valve involving the buildup of plaque-like material on or around the valve
Necrosis
A form of cell death, resulting from anoxia, trauma, release of toxic material, poisoning the surroundinng cells
Neuron
The main functional cell of the brain and NS, consists of cell body, an axon, and dendrites
Neroprotective Agents
Medications that protect the brain from secondary injury caused by stroke
Oxygen Free Radicals
Toxic chemicals released during the process of cellular respiration and released in excessive amounts
Plaque
Fatty cholesterol deposits found along the inside of the artery walls, leads to atherosclerosis and stenosis
Plasticity
The ability to be formed or molded, the brain ability to adapt to deficits and injury
Platelets
Structures found in the blood that are primarily blood coagulationn
Prevalence
The # of cases of a disease in a population at any given point in time
Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA)
Genrtically engineered form of t-PA, thrombolytic, anti-clotting substance made naturally by the body
Small Vessel Disease
A cerebrovascular disease defined by stenosis in small arteries of the brain
Stenosis
Narrowing of an artery due to the buildup of plaque on the inside walls of the artery
Stroke Belt
The area of the southeastern United States with the highest stroke mortality rate in the country
Stroke Buckle
Three southeastern states, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia that have extremely high stroke mortality
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Bleeding within the meninges, or outer membranes
Thrombolytics
Drugs used to treat an ongoing, ischemic stroke by dissolving blood clot causing the stroke , thereby restoring blood flow
Thrombosis
The formation of a blood clot
Thrombotic Stroke
A stroke caused by a thrombosis
Tissue Necrosis Factors
Chemicals released by leukocytes and other cells that cause secondary cell death during the inflammatory immune response associated with ischemic cascade
Total Serum Cholesterol
Combined measurement of a person's high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density (LDL)
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
A small magnetic current delivered to an area of the brain to promote plasticity and healing
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
A short-lived stroke that lasts a few minutes/ to 24 hours, called mini-strokes
Vasodilators
Medications that increase blood flow to the brain by expanding or dilating blood vessels
Vasospasms
A dangerous side effect of subarachnoid hemorrhage, blood vessels constrict erractically, cutting off blood
Vertebral Artery
Artery on either side of the neck
Warfarin
A commonly used anticoagulant, also known as Coumadin (blood thinner)