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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Information model
The message is sent by the source to the receiver, with ideas encoded and interpreted through symbols (words and images).
ex: "Who says what to whom with what effect"- might add how and why
cybernetic model of communication
circular in design, involving feedback from the receiver to influence the sender. two-way communication, talking with the audience (similar to the public information model)
persuasion model
consciously attempts to influence people, using ethical means that enhance a democratic society.
dialogue model
involves the deeply conscious interaction of two parties in communication and the sincere, competent attempt at mutual understanding
ex: "confirming communication" which seeks to heal and strengthen relationships
balance theory
unbalanced mental stances create tension and force an individual to restore balance
symmetry theory
balanced theory extended to groups
congruity theory
added some measurement in attitude in the balance theory
cognitive dissonance theory
the more people experience the psychological discomfort of having contradictory attitudes or beliefs, the more likely they will reduce the discomfort, usually by changing one of their attitudes or beliefs
inoculation theory
unchallenged beliefs and attitudes can be swayed with persuasive information, while attitudes that have been tested are more resistant to change.
social judgment theory
individuals accept or reject messages to the extent that they perceive the message as corresponding to their internal anchors (attitudes or beliefs) and as being ego-involved (affecting the person's self-concept)
source effects
the three c's
the power to inspire trust (belief)/
demonstrates the qualities of honesty, expertise, status and competence.
the power of personal charm/ magnetic appeal
characteristics: familiarity, likability, attractiveness, and similarity
power of command
characteristics: power, authority, scrutiny
logic and reason
communication effectiveness based on the rational appeal
rational appeal
logic and reason
clarify and simplify
one proposition at a time
appealing to sentiment
positive emotional appeals
love, virtue, humor, sex
negative emotional appeals
fear, guilt
message content
contributes significantly to the effectivess of the message strategy
clarity, salience (the ability to stand out from a crowd), power words, product and program names, strong quotes, ethical language, legal language
nonverbal communication
occurs through actions and cues other than words that carry meaning
symbols, logos, music, language, physical artifacts, clothing, people, mascot and promotional characters, colors, setting
communiation tactics
the visible elements of a strategic plan, what people see and do
types of media
controlled vs uncontrolled
internal vs external
mass vs targeted
popular vs trade
public vs nonpublic
print vs electronic
controlled- brochures
uncontrolled- news conferences and interviews
internal- same as controlled
external- billboards, newspapers
mass media- television networks
targeted- special-interest publication (people on sailboats)
popular- Maxim, USA Today
trade- Wine Business Monthly
public- local newspapers
nonpublic- company newsletter
print- magazines,
electronic- radio, email
communication tactics
interpersonal communication
organizatonal media
news media
advertising and promotional media
interpersonal communication
offers face-to-face opportunities for personal involvement and interaction
organizational media
published or produced by the organization by controlled media
news media
provides opportunities for the credible presentation of organizational message to large audiences
advertising and promotional media
controlled media, either internal or external to the organization, that can also offer access to large audiences
news media
communication vehicles that exists primarily to present newsworthy information to various audiences
news media tactics
direct news material (more or less ready for use)
ex: news facts sheet, news release

indirect news material (not to be published but to inform)
ex: media advisories

interactive news opportunities (pr and journalist interact)
ex: news interviews, news conference

opinion material (org's opinion rather than facts)
ex: position statements, letters to the edito
strategy for news media
reaches large audience
offers credibility (third party endorsement)
direct news material
most frequently used
information that is presented to the media more or less ready for use
ex: news facts sheets, interview notes
indirect news material
messages that are not meant to be published but are intended to interest or inform media gatekeepers
ex: media advisories, story idea memos
opinion material
present an organization's opinion rather than simply the factual inforamation that is the focus of most of the precedding news tactics
ex: position statements, letters to the editor
interactive news opportunities
communication opportunity in which public relations practitioners and journalist interact with each other
ex: news interviews, news conferences
components to budgeting
equipment and facilities
media costs
administrative cost
approaches to budgeting
competitive parity
cost-benefit analysis
objective-based methods
1. based on competitions budget
2. similar project gets same budget
3. budget based on previous years profits
4. not based on dollars but prior outcomes
5. not a good approach
6. cost vs expected value
7. examine expense neccessary if pr plan isnt implemented
8. tactics ranked according to importance
9. start-up programs cost more than maintenance
10. deals with already identified needs andd goals (org will provide funds to reach objective)
fee structues for PR agencies
hourly rates plus expenses
project fees (fixed fees)
retainer fees
performance fees
hourly rates plus expenses
actual amount of time spent on a project, plus the amount of money spent on materials, production costs, and media
project fees
(fixed fees)
flat charges for projects
retainer fees
fixed monthly charges paid in advance for a predetermined level of agency availability
(lower than regualr hourly rates)
performance fees
new and controversial
bills based on its success in achieving stated objectives
gantt chart
list each tactic and the various associated tasks, then indicates the time needed for each task, provides a map of the work that needs to be done
pert chart
(program evaluation and review techique)
list task within circles, with arrows indicating how one task flows into another. lacks the calendaring aspect of the gantt chart
evaluation research design
after-only studies
before-and-after studies
controlled before-and-after studies
after-only studies
implement a tactic, meassure its impact, and presume that the tactic caused the impact.
before-and-after studies
(pretest/post-test study)
observation before any public relations programming is implmented. provides a benchmark or baseline for comparing studies that will be conducted later
controlled before-and-after test
sophisticated. takes into account unrelated outside forces.
two sample groups drawn from the same key publics, one is the group to recieve the message, the other is a control group that does not receive the message
hawthorne effect
(placebo effect)
subjects knew that they were being observed and knew that the company was concerned about worker productivity.
explain any impact, usually short-term, through which employees are made to feel important or are aware that they are being observed
five levels of evaluation
judgmental assessment
communication outputs
judgmental assesments
an evaluation made on hunches and experiences, it comes naturally. relies on personal and subjective observations such as "the boss liked it"
ex: assetments by outside pr experts offer analysis of the program
evaluation of communication outputs
measuring communication products and their distribution. concentrates on the development and presentation of a message.
message production,
message distribution,
message cost, and
advertising equivalency
evaluation of awareness objectives
focus on documenting communication activity but it doesnt give a solid basis for measuring effectiveness
message exposure
message content
readability measures
message recall
evaluation of acceptance objectives
audience feedback and benchmark (baseline) studies
evaluation of action objectives
focus on the bottom-line issues for an organization, primarily the action sought from the key publics
audience participation
direct observation
relative media effectiveness
honor, credit, recognition or esteem given to a person or organization.
reputation is the heart of strat comm
reputation involves perception
reputation should reflect performance
a good reputation has practical value
a good reputation is an insurance policy
every organization can enhance its reputation
every organization can also jeopardize its reputation
the news media help shape an organization's rep
orgs risk theur good rep by not responding to media inquiries
your rep is everybody's business
your rep is fragile
media relations from the media side
reporters want news
reporters are skeptical
not all repoters are alike
media relations from the org's side
org wants fair treatment
org benefits from a healthy relationship w the media
interview planning
1- consider planning points that relate specifically to the organization
2- consider the following points as they relate to the media audience and the org's public
3-consider objectives and strategy
organ donor situation
While 90 percent of Americans say they support organ donation, only 52 percent of Ohioans
are registered donors. Turn sentiment into action.
thus, the “Live On. Ride
On.” campaign to motorcycle enthusiasts was born.
organ donor goal and objectives
the aggressive goal of converting five percent of
central and southeast Ohio motorcycle enthusiasts to registered organ donors (12,250).
• Overcome target audience apathy by appealing to people within the context of issues about
which they are passionate (In this pilot – the motorcyclist affinity audience was chosen.)
• Use high-touch interactions to ask people to join the donor registry.
• Use bold graphics and messages to cut through the clutter and grab attention.
public opinion
Public opinion is somewhat elusive and extremely difficult to measure at any given moment
• The sum of individual opinions on an issue affecting those individuals
• A collection of views held by persons interested in the subject
opinion leader
Catalysts for the formation of public opinion through their knowledge and ability to articulate ideas about specific issues
formal opinion leaders
Have positions of power and are tapped for information about specific issue related to their areas of responsibility
informal opinion leaders
Have clout with peers because of some special characteristic
key takaway
Try to influence them as they try to influence the public at large
message construction
Order of presentation, drawing conclusions, reiteration
beliefs about right or wrong that guide our actions
Four components of practice ethical decision
personal values,public interest, employer interest, standards of the profession
four principles of effective media engagment
reputation, credibility,crisis,media relations