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44 Cards in this Set

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define converging operations
the use of multiple approaches and techniques to address a problem
define concept
an idea about something that provides a means of understanding the world
define category
a concept itself, which functions to organize or point out aspects of equivalence among other concepts based on common features or similarity to a prototype.
define schema
mental frameworks for representing knowledge that encompass an array of interrelated concepts in a meaningful organization.
true or false: A strong point of schema's is that they do not give rise to stereotypes.
False. We might, for example, have a schema for the kind of person we believe was responsible for the destruction of the World Trade Center. This schema easily can generate a stereotype of certain groups of people as likely to be terrorists.
Define 'defining features'
they constitute the definition of a category, according to the feature-based, componential point of view. A defining feature is a necassary one: For a thing to be an "X", it must have that feature, otherwise it is not an "X".
explain prototype theory
categories are fromed on the basis of characteristic features.
define characteristic features
the describe (characterize or typify) the typical model of the category.
define classical concepts
categories that can be readily defined through defining features, such as a bachelor.
define fuzzy concepts
categories that cannot be so easily defined, largely because the borders of what constitutes them are.... fuzzy.
define similarity
the number of features shared between an object and the prototype.
define mutiliple exemplars
several alternative typical representatives of a category.
define core
the defining features something must have to be considered an example of a category. In contrast, the prototype refers to the characteristic features that tend to be typical of an example but that are not necessary for being considered an example.
define semantic network
a web of interconnected elements that are related to meaning as expressed in language.
define labeled relationships
connections between nodes (elements)
true or false: A hierarchical model would seem ideal because within a hierarchy we can store information efficiently that applies to all members of a category at the highest possible level in the hierarchy without having to repeat that information at all the lower levels.
True
define inheritance
lower-level items inherit the properties of higher-level itemes
True or false: an items 'basic level' is the one that has the largest number of distinctive features, which set it off from other concepts at the same level
true
true or false: When people are shown pictures of objects, the pople identify objects at a basic level at the same speed that they identify objects at higher or lower levels.
false. they identify basic level items quicker.
define schema
a mental framework for organizing knowledge, creating a meaningful structure of related concepts.
list 3 characteristics of schemas that ensure wide flexibility in their use
1. Schemas can include other schemas
2. Schemas encompass typical, general facts, which can vary slightly from one specific instance to another
3. Schemas can vary in their degree of abstraction.
List 5 ways that schemas also can include infromation about relationships
1. Concepts
2. attributes within concepts
3. Attributes in related concepts
4. Concepts and particular contexts
5. Specific concepts and general background knowledge.
define scripts
a structure that describes appropriate sequences of events in a particular contex. A script is made up of slots and requirements about what can fill those slots. The structure is an interconnnected whole, and what is in one slot affects what can be in another. Scripts hanle stylized everyday situations. They are not subject to much change, nor do they provide the apparatus for handling totally novel situations
list 5 features of scripts
1. props
2. roles to be played
3. opening conditions
4. scenes
5. results.
define production system
the entire set of rules for executing the task or using the skill (eg: traffic light)
define ACT-R
a model of information processing that integrates a network representation for declarative knowledge and a production-system representation for procedural knowledge.
J.R. Anderson (1980) hypothesized that knowledge representation of prodedural skills occurs in 3 stages. List them
cognitive, associative, autonomous.
describe the cognitive stage
we think about explicit rules for implementing the procedure.
describe the associative stage
we practice using the explicit rules extensivley, usually in a highly consistent manner
describe the autonomous stage
we use these rules automatically and implicityly, with a high degree of integration and coordination, as well as speed and accuracy.
define proceduralization
the overall process by which we transform slow, explicit information about procedures into speedy, implicit, implementations of procedures.
describe what happens during composition
we construct a single production rule that effectively embraces two or more production rules, thus streamlining the number of rules required for executing the procedure.
define discriminate
discern relevant information from irrelevant data
true or false: amnesia patients have no procedural knowledge
False. They seem to show procedural knowledge even when they cannot remember that they possess such knowledge.
True or false: Nondeclarative knowledge representation occurs as a result of experience in implementing a procedure as well as a realut of reading, hearing, or otherwise aquiring information from explicit instructions.
False. experience in implementing a procedure only
define semantic priming
we are primed by a meaningul context or by meaningful information
define repetition priming
prior exposure to a word or other stimulus primes a subsequent retreival of that information.
define compound cue
a linking of the target and the prime as a pair used for retrieving information from memory.
define parallel processing
multiple operations go on all at once.
define inactive neurons
not stimulated beyond their threshold of excitation and are not releasing any neurotransmitters into the synapse
define excitatory neurons
releasing neurotransmitters that stimulate receptive neurons at the synapse, increasing the likelihood that the receiving neurons will reach their threshold of excitation
define inhibitory neurons
releasing neurotransmitters that inhibit receptive neurons, reducing the likelihood that the receiving neurons will reach their threshold of excitation
true or false: the more often a particular connection is activated, the greater is the strenght of the connection in exitatory neurons only.
false. also in inhibitory neurons.
define modular
divided into descrete modules that operate more or less independently from each other