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27 Cards in this Set

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Disinfection
Reducing the number of pathogenic organisms on objects or in materials so that they pose no threat of disease
Disinfectants
Agents that are typically applied to inanimate objects; most disinfectants do not kill spores
Antiseptics
Agents that are applied to living tissues; chemical agent. Destroys or inhibits growth of microorganisms.
Sterilization
The killing or removing of ALL micro-organisms in a material or on an object. No living organisms on an object.
Bacteriostatic agent
inhibits growth of bacteria
Germicide
capable of killing microbes rapidly; some effectively kill certain microorganisms but only inhibit the growth of others
Bactericide
kills bacteria; most do not kill spores
Viricide
Inactivates viruses
Fungicide
kills fungi
Sporocide
kills bacterial endospores or fungal spores
Principles of sterilization and disinfection
-a definite proportion of organisms die at a given time

-the fewer the organisms present, the shorter the time needed to achieve sterility

-microorganisms differ in their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents
Potency of chemical agents
-time is key
-temperature accelerates death rate
-pH can increase or decrease agents potency
-increased concentration can increase the effects of the agent
Disinfectant Criteria
-Fast acting
-Effective against all types of infectious agents without destroying tissues or being poisonous
-Easily penetrate material to be disinfected without causing harm to material
-Easy to prepare and stable when exposed to light, or other environmental factors
-cheap
-does not smell bad
Protein Denaturation
Some antimicrobials denature or unfold DNA proteins so they don't function properly (ie:heat). This is done by physically or chemically altering primary, secondary, or tertiary structures
Hydrolysis
Acids such as boric acid, and strong alkalis destroy proteins by hydrolyzing it
Oxidation
Oxidizing agents (electron acceptors), such as hydrogen peroxide. and potassium permanganate, oxidize disulfide linkages or sulfhydryl groups. Agents containing halogens also sometimes act as oxidizing agents
Attachment of atoms or chemical groups
-Heavy metals attach to sulfhydryl groups.
-Alkylating agents, which contain methyl group donate this group to proteins
-Halogens can be substituted for hydrogen in carboxyl, sulfhydryl, amino, and alcohol groups
Membrane Proteins
can be denatured by various agents
Membrane Lipid
Can be disrupted by substances that dissolve lipids. Alcohols, detergents, and quaternary ammonium compounds dissolve lipids.
Surfactants
soluble compounds that reduce surface tension
Phenols
(alcohols) dissolve lipids and denature proteins
Detergent Solutions
(wetting agents) often used with other chemical agents to help the other agent penetrate fatty substances
Nucleic Acids (reactions)
Alkylating agents can replace hydrogen on amino or alcohol groups in nucleic acids
Cell Wall (reactions)
Dyes, such as crystal violet, can interfere with the cell wall formation
Energy producing systems
Lactic acid and propionic acid (end products of fermentation), inhibit fermentation and thus prevent energy production in certain bacteria, molds and some other organisms
Physical Antimicrobial Agents
Dry Heat, Moist Heat, Pasteurization
Physical Antimicrobial Methods
Refrigeration/freezing, Dessication, Freeze-drying, Radiation, Filtration, Osmotic Control