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88 Cards in this Set

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part of adrenal gland that secretes aldosterone?
Zona Glomerulosa of adrenal cortex
part of adrenal gland that secretes cortisol and sex hormones?
Zona Fasciculata of adrenal cortex
part of adrenal gland that secretes androgens?
Zona Reticularis of adrenal cortex
part of adrenal gland that secretes catecholamines?
Adrenal medulla
part of adrenal gland that is controlled by renin-angiotensin system?
Zona Glomerulosa of adrenal cortex (secretes aldosterone)
part of adrenal gland that is controlled by pre-ganglionic sympathetic fibers?
Adrenal medulla (secretes catecholamines)
tumors of the adrenal medulla?
In adults: pheochromocytoma
In children: neuroblastoma
hormones made in posterior pituitary?
vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin are made in hypothalamus, STORED in posterior pituitary
hormones made in anterior pituitary?
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
GH
which hormones share an alpha unit?
TSH, LH, FSH, hCG
where in pancreas (histologically) are beta cells located?
INSide of islets of langerhans
three cell types located in islets of langerhans?
alpha cells: glucagon responsive
beta cells: insulin responsive
delta: somatostatin
cells that don't need insulin for glucose uptake?
Brain
RBCs
Intestine
Cornea
Kidney
Liver
fuel source for brain in starvation?
ketone bodies
negative feedback loop that regulates prolactin secretion?
increases dopamine secretion (from hypothalamus) that inhibits prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary
adrenal enzyme deficiency that causes decreased cortisol?
all of them
adrenal enzyme deficiency that causes decreased sex hormone levels?
17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency (other symptoms include hypertension and hypokalemia)
adrenal enzyme deficiency that causes XY pseudohermaphroditism?
17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency (other symptoms include hypertension and hypokalemia)
adrenal enzyme deficiency that causes XX sexual infantilism (lack of secondary sexual characteristics)?
17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency (other symptoms include hypertension and hypokalemia)
adrenal enzyme deficiency that causes decreased mineralocorticoids and increased sex hormones?
21-hydroxylase deficiency (other symptoms include hypotension and hyperkalemia)
adrenal enzyme deficiency that causes hypotension and hyperkalemia?
21-hydroxylase deficiency (also causes increased levels of sex hormones)
adrenal enzyme deficiency that causes decreased aldosterone and corticosterone but hypertension?
11-beta hydroxylase deficiency (11-deoxycortisol is mineralocorticoid and acts as aldosterone)
adrenal enzyme deficiency that causes salt wasting in newborn?
21-hydroxylase deficiency
source of PTH?
chief cells of parathyroid
effect of PTH on phosphate?
decreases kidney reabsorption of phosphate
effect of calcium on PTH?
low serum calcium causes increased PTH secretion
effect of magnesium on PTH?
low serum magnesium causes decreased PTH secretion
source of calcitonin?
parafollicular cells (C cells) of thyroid
primary cause of cushing's syndrome?
exogenous steroids
hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis?
hyperaldosteronism, can be primary (low plasma renin) or secondary (high renin)
antimicrosomal antibodies?
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
antithyroglobulin antibodies?
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
HLA association for Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
HLA-DR5
pot-bellied, pale, puffy faced child with protruding umbilicus and protruding tongue?
fetal hypothyroidism (cretinism), caused by lack of dietary iodine or defect in T4/thyroid formation
histology showing granulomatous inflammation of thyroid?
subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) -- self-limited hypothyroidism following flulike illness
fixed, hard, painless goiter?
Riedel's thyroiditis (replaced by fibrous tissue); causes hypothyroidism
histology of hashimoto's thyroiditis?
lymphocytic infiltrate with germinal centers; Hurthle cells
most common thyroid cancer?
papillary carcinoma
calcium levels in primary hyperparathyroidism?
hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria (renal stones)
calcium levels in secondary hyperparathyroidism?
hypocalcemia (usually due to decreased gut calcium absorption, most often in chronic renal disease 2/2 low vitamin D levels)
test for central vs. nephrogenic DI?
response to desmopressin
pancreatic histology associated with type 1 DM?
leukocytic infiltrate
pancreatic histology associated with type 2 DM?
amyloid deposits
treatment for carcinoid syndrome?
octreotide
tumors in MEN 1?
Parathyroid
Pituitary (prolactin or GH)
Pancreatic
tumors in MEN 2a?
Parathyroid
Pheochromocytoma
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (secretes calcitonin)
tumors in MEN 2b?
Oral/intestinal ganglioneuromatosis
Pheochromocytoma
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (secretes calcitonin)
inheritance pattern of MEN syndromes?
autosomal-dominant (all subtypes)
MOA of sulfonylureas in type 2 DM?
close potassium channel in beta-cell membrane, triggering insulin release
MOA of metformin?
exact mechanism unknown; causes decreased gluconeogenesis, increased glycolysis, increased peripheral glucose uptake
MOA of glitazones in type 2 DM?
increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by binding to PPAR-gamma nuclear transcription regulator
MOA of exenatide in type 2 DM?
GLP-1 analog, causes increased insulin and decreased glucagon release
medication used to treat SIADH?
demeclocycline
diabetes med that causes lactic acidosis?
metformin
treatment for central DI?
intranasal desmopressin
treatment for nephrogenic DI?
HCTZ, indomethacin, or amiloride
treatment for acromegaly?
pituitary adenoma resection followed by octreotide administration
treatment for SIADH?
free water restriction or demeclocycline
diabetes meds that cause disulfuram-like effects?
first generation sulfonylureas (eg tolbutamide, chlorpropamide)
toxicities of glipizide or glyburide?
(second gen sulfonylureas)
hypoglycemia
toxicities of metformin?
lactic acidosis (contraindicated in renal failure)
diabetes meds that cause weight gain, edema, hepatotoxicity?
glitazones
diabetes meds that cause GI disturbances?
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (inhibit glucose absorption): acarbose, miglitol
toxicities of acarbose, miglitol?
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (inhibit glucose absorption), used in DM II; cause GI disturbances
psych med that causes nephrogenic DI?
lithium
findings of radionucleotide uptake scan in Graves' disease?
increased uptake, diffuse pattern
Conn's syndrome
primary hyperaldosteronism (solitary aldosterone-secreting adenoma of adrenal cortex)
electrolyte abnormality associated with 22q11 syndromes?
hypocalcemia
mechanism of ADH in kidney?
stimulates water reabsorption by increasing number of water channels
MOA of finasteride?
5-alpha reductase inhibitor that inhibits conversion of testosterone to DHT; used in BPH and to promote hair growth
histological findings in papillary thyroid carcinoma?
"ground glass" (orphan annie) nuclei, calcified spherical bodies (psammoma bodies), intranuclear pseudoinclusion, nuclear grooves
histological findings in advanced diabetic nephropathy?
nodular glomerulosclerosis with thickened basement membranes
glomeruli with wire-loop appearance and subendothelial basement membrane deposits?
SLE
actions of somatostatin?
1. blocks GHRH effect in hypothalamic-pituitary axis
2. inhibits gastric acid secretion and slows gastric emptying (released from mucosal D cells)
3. reduces pancreatic release of glucagon and insulin
somatostatin analog?
octreotide
treatment of carcinoid tumor?
octreotide (somatostatin analog)
bromocriptine?
dopamine agonist used to treat Parkinson's disease and prolactinomas of pituitary
cardiac sequella of carcinoid syndrome?
tricuspid regurgitation 2/2 high levels of serotonin
acidophilic staining pituitary cells secrete what hormones?
secrete GH and prolactin
basophilic staining pituitary cells secrete what hormonies?
FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
signaling pathway used by GH, prolactin?
receptor-associated tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT pathway)
signaling pathway used by insulin?
instrinsic tyrosine kinase (MAP kinase pathway)
signaling pathway used by vitamin D, estrogen?
cytosolic steroid receptor (also used by testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone)
signaling pathway used by GnRH, Oxytocin, ADH, TRH?
IP3
serum levels of what hormone are elevated in Addison's disease?
ACTH (in response to decreased cordisol, aldosterone, androgen levels)
treatment of de Quervain's subacute thyroiditis?
NSAIDs or high dose aspirin
embryologic origin of the thyroid?
pharynx
diagnostic test for acromegaly?
lack of suppression of GH following glucose load