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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Causes of Eosinophilia
NAACP
Neoplasia
Asthma
Allergy
Collagen vascular diseases
Parasites
Embryology Week of 2's
Week 2
2 layered trophoblast (cyto-/syncitio-)
2 layered embryoblast (epi-/hypo-)
2 fluid cavities (amniotic, yolk sac)
Embryology Week of 3's
Gastrulation
3 embryonic layers
ectoderm: cns/pns, epidermis, sensory epithelium
mesoderm: musc/bone/CT, vessels, blood, GU
endoderm: GI, glands, lungs, trachea, liver, pancreas
Fetal Erythropoiesis
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
Yolk Sac wk 3-8
Liver wk 6-30
Spleen wk 9-28
Bone Marrow wk 28+
5 secondary vesicles of neural tube

Tell Diane she Messed up when she Met My brother
Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myencephalon
1st branchial arch derivatives
1st arch is MAXimal
MAXillary and sphenopalatine artery
MAXilla, Mandible, Incus,Malleus
Masseter, Medial Pterygoid, teMporalis, ant belly of digastric, tensor veli palatini, tensor tempani
CN V2,V3 trigeminal
2nd branchial arch derivatives
Second starts with S
Stapedial and hyoid artery
Stapes, superior horn of the hyoid
Stapedius, facial muscles, post belly of digastric
CN VII facial
3rd branchial arch derivatives
C is the 3rd letter
Common Carotid and ICA
inferior horn of hyoid
stylopharyngeus
CN IX glossopharyngeal
inferior parathyroid glands and thymus
4th branchial arch derivatives
4th supplies 4 limbs
Fourth is for Food
aortic arch and right subclavian
thyroid/cricoid/arytenoid cartilage
pharyngeal constrictors
superior parathyroid glands
CN X
6th branchial arch derivatives
Sixth is for Singing
Pulmonary artery, PDA
intrinic laryngeal muscles
CN X (recurrent laryngeal nerve)
Diaphragm Embryology
Several Parts Build the Diaphragm
Septum transversum
Pleuroperiotoneal folds
Body wall mesoderm
Dorsal mesentery of esophagus
Mekel's Diverticulum Rule of 2s
2 inches long
2 feet from iliocecal valve
2% of population
2 years old and younger
2 types of epithelia (pancreatic or oxyntic)
2 symptoms: bleeding or obstruction
Mesonephric/Wolffian Duct derivatives
SEED
Seminal Vesicles
Epididymis
Ejaculatory duct
Ductus deferens
Potter's Disease
Babies with Potter's can't Pee, have Pulmonary hyPoPlasia
Dermatomes: T4, T10, L1, L4
T4 at the Teat Pore
T10 at the belly butTEN
L1 at IL (Inguinal Ligament)
L4 = down on all fours (knee)
Rotator cuff muscles
Humerus SItS in shoulder joint
Supraspinatus (Abd)
Infraspinatus & Teres Minor (Add, Lat rot)
Subscapularis (Add, Med rot)
Bronchopulmonary segments
Arteries run with Airways
Femoral triangle contains:
lateral to medial
NAVEL - nerve, artery, vein, empty space, lymphatics
artery and vein within femoral sheath
INdirect hernia
through INguinal canal INto scrotum, occurs in INfants due to failed closure of processus vaginalis (lateral to inf epigastric vessels)
Portal Systemic Anastamoses
Gut, Butt, and Caput
Ureter course: Water under the bridge
Pass under uterine artery and ductus deferens
Male Sexual Response and the ANS: Point and Shoot
Parasympathetic - arousal
Sympathetic - Ejaculation
Peripheral Nerve Layer: perineurium
Permeability barrier
Sensory Corpuscles:
My Frend Deb Pours Coffee and Vanilla Latte's
Meissner's, Fine touch, in Dermis
Pacinian, Course touch and Vibration, in Ligaments
Inner ear fluid compositions
Perilymph needs Potassium
eNdolymph needs Na
Collagen types
Be (So Totally)
Cool
Read
Books
type I: Bone, Skin, Tendon
type II: Cartilage
type III: Reticular fibers
type IV: Basement membrane
Epidermal layers:
Californians Like Girls in String Bikinis
stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basalis
Adrenal Cortex layers: GFR
zona Glomerulosa: Aldo
zona Fasciculata: Cortisol
zona Reticularis: Androgens
Peyer's Patch product: IgA
Intra-Gut Antibody: produced by plasma cells in lamina propria
Dimer with secretory (J) component secreted into lumen by enterocytes
Induced via M cell IL-5
Lower extremity nerve injury:
PED/TIP
Peroneal (L4-S2) nerve everts and dorsiflexes
injury leads to foot drop
Tibial nerve (L4-S3) inverts and plantarflexes
injuries reduce tip-toeing
Blood Brain Barrier: protected by the CIA
Choroid plexus epithelium
(cuboidal cells with tight jxns)
Intracerebral Capillary Epithelium
(BL, fenestrated endothelium)
Arachnoid mater
Hypothalamic functions:
TAN HATS
Thirst (ADH-suproptic)
Adenohypophysis (releasing factors)
Neurohypophysis (oxytocin)
Hunger, satiety (lateral, ventromedial)
Autonomics
(parasymp = anterior, circadian = suprachiasmatic)
Temperature (anterior = heat loss, posterior = heat production)
Sexuality (Septate nucleus)
Thirst and Sleep control centers: drink warm milk before bed
Supraoptic (rostral to suprachiasmatic) = ADH
Suprachiasmatic = circadian rhythm
Body temperature control:
A/C and Poikilotherms
Anterior = Cooling

lesions to the Posterior nuclues
= inability to raise temperature
(poikilotherm, aka cold-blooded)
Thalamic nuclei functions: LGN and MGN
VPL and VPM
LateralGN to Look
MedialGN for Music

VPLateral = sensation from legs (and body)
VPMedial = sensation from mouth (and face)
Aphasias
Broca's
Wernicke's
Arcuate Fasciculus
BROca lesions = BROken mouth
Wernicke's = Wordy, no sensibility/comprehension
aRcuate fasciculus = no Repetition
Cranial Foramina:
Obviously, Standing Room Only, Silly, At Jenn's Half-Marathon
Optic canal (CN II, opthalmic a, retinal v)
Superior orbital fissure (CN III,IV,V1,VI, ophthalmic v)
foramen Rotundum (CN V2)
foramen Ovale (CN V3)
foramen Spinosum (middle meningeal a)
internal Auditory meatus (CN VII,VIII)
Jugular foramen (CN IX,X,XI, IJV)
Hypoglossal canal (CN XII)
foramen Magnum (medulla, vertebral a)
CN functions: Sensory, Motor, or Both
Some
Say
Marry
Money
But
My
Brother
Says
Big
Brains
Matter
Most
Vagal nuclei: the vagus wanders because it's SAD
nucleus Solitarius - visceral sensory (taste/GI)
nucleus Ambiguus - somatic motor (pharynx/larynx)
Dorsal motor nucleus - parasympathetic reflexes
Dorsal Column organization
Fasciculi Gracilis and Cuneatus
graciLis = Leg
cuneAtus = Arm
Bell's Palsy causes:
ALexander Bell with STD
AIDS
Lyme Disease
Sarcoidosis
Tumor
Diabetes
with central lesions: remember b/l innervation to upper face
Radial nerve innervates the BEST muscles
Brachioradialis
Extensors of Wrist/Fingers
Supinator
Triceps
Forearm Supination
to hold a bowl of SoUP
innervated by radial n.
Sensitivity vs. Specificity
SNOUT - Sn rules out (few false pos)
= true pos/dz prev
SPIN - Sp rules in (few false neg)
= true neg/health prev
Reportable Diseases:
B A SSSMMART Cookie or you're Gone
hep B
hep A
Salmonella
Shigella
Syphilis
Measles
Mumps
AIDS
Rubella
TB
Chickenpox
Gonorrhea
Risk factors for suicide completion:
SAD PERSONS
Sex (male)
Age
Depression
Previous attempts
Ethanol abuse
Rational thought
Sickness
Organized plan
No spouse
Social support lacking
Informed Concent:
PDF
Patient agrees
Discuss pertinent info
Free from coersion
APGAR score
Appearance
Pulse rate
Grimace reflex
Activity/muscle tone
Respiration
Developmental Milestones:
1, 2, 3, 4
1 yr - plays alone
2 yrs - 2 play parallel (side by side)
3 yrs - 3 play in group
4 yrs - 4 play as teams (cooperative)
Kubler Ross dying stages:
Death Arrives Bringing Grave Adjustments
Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Grieving
Acceptance
Sleep Stages:
at night, BATS Drink Blood
awake, eyes open = beta waves
awake, eyes closed = alpha waves
light sleep = theta waves
deep sleep = sleep spindles
deeper/nonREM = delta waves
REM sleep = beta waves
Major depressive episode:
SIGECAPS
depressed mood OR anhedonia
with 5 of the following, lasting 2+ wks:
Sleep disturbance
Interest decreased
Energy Guilt
decreased
Concentration decreased
Appetite altered
Psychomotor retardation
Suicidal ideation
Manic Episode:
DIG FAST
3 of the following, lasting 1+ wk:
Distractability
Insomnia
Grandiosity
Flight of Ideas
Activity (increased goal-setting)
Speech (rapid, pressured)
Thoughtless pleasure-seeking
Infant Deprivation Effects:
4 W's
Weak, Wordless, Wanting (socially), and Wary
PANIC disorder
4 of the following:
Palpitations
Abd distress
Nausea
Increased perspiration
Chest pain/chills/choking
Personality Disorders:
Clusters A, B, C = Weird, Wild, Worried
A (Weird)
Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal
B (Wild)
Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
C (Worried)
Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, Dependent
Schizophrenia: 5 A's
Ambivalence (uncertainty)
Autism (self preoccupation)
Affect (blunted)
Associations (loose)
Auditory hallucinations
Mature Ego defenses:
Mature women wear a SASH
Sublimation (finding new outlets)
Altruism (guilt -> giving)
Suppression
Humor
Nucleotides
PURines are PURe As Gold - adenine/guanine
CUT the PY for PYrimidines - cytosine/thymidine/uracil
Types of RNA
mRNA is massive in size
rRNA is rampant in quantity
tRNA is tiny in size
RNA polymerases
1, 2, 3 - RMT
Start and Stop codons
start: AUG = are you going?
stop: UGA = u go away, UAA - u are away, UAG = u are gone
Introns and extrons
INtrons stay in nucleus
EXons EXit the nucleus as mature mRNA
ATP and GTP in translation
ATP for tRNA Activation (charging)
GTP for tRNA Gripping (binding) and Going (translocation)
Molecular Biology Blots:
SNoW DRoP
Southern = DNA-DNA
Northern = RNA-DNA
Western = Protein+Ab
Southwestern = Protein-DNA
Imprinting Diseases:
angelMan's and Prader-willi
angelMan's = Maternal
Prader-willi = Paternal
TCA cycle: Cindy Is Kind So She's Friendly More Often
Citrate
Isocitrate
alpha Ketoglutarate
Succinyl CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate
Oxaloacetate
Essential Amino Acids:
PriVaTe TIM HALL
Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan
Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histidine
Arginine
Leusine
Lysine
Cystinuria: COLA
defect in renal tubular transporter for:
cystine, ornithine, lysine, arginine
Maple Syrup Urine Disease:
I Love Vermont Maple Syrup
branched chain aa accumulation
defect in alpha ketoglu dehydrogenase

Isoleucine
Leucine
Valine
5 P's of Porphyria
Painful abdomen
Pink urine
Polyneuropathy
Psychiatric disturbances
Precipitated by drugs
Glycogen storage diseases:
Very Poor Carbohydrate Metabolism
Von Gierke - glucose6Pase def
>hypogly, inc glycogen, hyperlipidemia, lactic acidosis

Pompe's - a1,4 glucosidase def
>cardiomegaly/myopathy, hepatomegaly

Cori's -a1,6 glucosidase def

McArdle's - musc glycogenPase def
>inc glycogen, musc cramps, myoglobinuria
Lesch Nyan Syndrome (LNS)
Lacks Nucleotide Salvage (via HGPRT)
Apolipoproteins: A, B, C, E
A - Activates LCAT
B - Binds LDL R
C - Cofactor for lipoprotein lipase
E - Extra/remnant uptake
Thiamine Deficiency (Vit B1)
Ber1 Ber1
Riboflavin deficiency (Vit B2): 2 C's
cheilosis, corneal vascularization
Niacin deficiency (Vit B3): 3 D's
Dermatitis, Dementia, Diarrhea
and beefy glossitis
from tryptophan
Causes of Hypercalcemia: MISHAP
Malignancy
Intoxication with Vit D
Sarcoidosis
Hyperparathyroidism
Alkali syndrome
Paget's Dz of bone
Vitamin E
Erythrocyte antioxidant
Gram Stain Limitations:
These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color
Treponema
Rickettsia
Mycobacteria
Mycoplasma
Legionella pneumophilia
Chlamydia
Fermentation:
N. MeninGitidis and N. Gonorrhea
Ferment:
Maltose and Glucose
or just Glucose
Obligate Aerobes:
Nagging Pests Must Breathe
Nocardia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Bacillus anthracis
Strep Pneumo:
AEIOU
Alpha hemolytic
Encapsulated
IgA proteases
Optochin sensitive
quellUng rxn+
Viridans Strep is not afraid of-the-chin
Optochin resistant
Clostridium species toxings
TETanus causes TETany/spastic paralysis
BOTulinum is found in BOTtled and canned food
PERFringens PERForates tissues via lecithinase
DIfficile causes DIarrhea
Treating Nocardia and Actinomyces: SNAP
Sulfa drugs for Nocardia
Actinomyces = PCN G
Enterobactericeae characteristics:
COFFEe
Capsular
O antigen (LPS polysaccharide)
Flagellar Ag
Ferment glucose
Enterobactericeae
hAEMOPhilus diseases
Arthritis (septic)
Epiglottitis
Meningitis
Otitis media
Pneumonia
Legionella Pneumophilia:
French Legionnaire wearing silver helmet, sitting next to campfire with iron dagger - he's no sissy
Legionella
Silver stain
Charcoal medium with
Fe/Cystine supplements
PSEUDomonas diseases
Pneumonia (CF pts)
Sepsis (black skin lesions)
External otitis (swimmer's ear)
UTI
Dermal burn infxn
Lactose fermenting enterobactericeae:
Lactose is KEE
Klebsiella
E. Coli
Enterobacter
Zoonotic bacteria:
Bugs From Your Pet
Borrelia burgdorferi
Lyme dz, ixodes tick from deer
Brucella
Undulant fever, unpasteurized dairy
Francisella Tularensis
fleas of rabbits/deer
Yersinia Pestis
The Plague, fleas from rodents
Pasteurella multocida
Cellulitis, animal bites
Chlamydial triad:
VHF
Vasculitis (rash)
Headache
Fever
Rickettsial endemic tyPHus v.
Rocky mtn Spotted fever
tyPHus: rash w/ centriPHugal spread
sPotted fever: rash w/ centriPetal spread
begins on palms and soles
VDRL false positives
Viruses
Drugs
Rheumatic fever/arthritis
Lupus or Leprosy
Blastomyces appearance
Big, Broad-Based, Budding yeast
DNA viruses:
HHAPPPy
Naked PAP
Hepadnaviridae
Herpesvirus
Adenovirus (naked)
Papovavirus (naked)
Parvovirus (naked)
Poxvirus
Mumps = mOMPs
Orchitis
Meningitis
Parotitis
Measles: 3 C's
Coryza
Cough
Conjunctivitis
Herpes:
get herpes in a CHEVrolet
CMV
HSV 1 & 2
EBV
VZV
Congenital CMV infxn:
patients can't go HOME
Hepatoslenoomegaly
Ototoxicity
Microcephaly
Ears (deafness)
Hepatitis Viruses: ABCDE
A = Asymptomatic
B = Blood borne
C = Chronic, Cirrhosis
D = Dependent on B
E = Expectant mothers
Interleukins:
Hot T-BONE stEAk
IL1 - pyrogen = Hot
IL2 - from T cells
IL3 - induces BONE marrow diff'n
IL4 - induces IgE and IgG
IL5 - induces IgA
Hypersensitivities I - IV:
ACID
I - Anaphylaxis, Atopic
II - Cytotoxic
III - Immune Complex
IV - Delayed Hypersensitivity
BRUTon's agammaglobulinemia
Boys (x-linked Recessive)
Underproduction of Igs
Tyrosine kinase deficiency
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome:
WIPE
Wiskott
IgM deficiency
Pyogenic infections
Eczema
Ampicillin coverage:
HELPS kill Enterococcus
H. Flu
E. Coli
Listeria
Proteus
Salmonella/Shigella
Enterococcus
1st generation Cephalosporins:
PEcK
Proteus
E. Coli
Klebsiella
2nd generation Cephalosporins:
HEN PEcKS
H. flu
Enterobacter
Neisseria
Proteus
E. Coli
Klebsiella
Serratia
Protein synthesis inhibitors:
buy AT 30, SCELL at 50
bind 30 S ribosomal subunit:
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines

bind 50S ribosomal subunit:
Synercid
Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin
cLindamycin
Linezolid
Vancomycin:
NOT a lot of side effects
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Thrombophlebitis
Tetracyclines:
VACUUM Before TRL
Vibrio Cholera
Acne
Chlamydia
Ureaplasma Urealyticum
Mycoplasma
Borrelia
Tularemia
Rickettsia
Leptospira
Trimethoprim (TMP):
Treats Marrow Poorly
megaloblastic anemia
leukopenia
granulocytopenia
FluoroquinolONES
hurt your bONES:
cartilage damage in fetus/children
tendonitis and rupture in adults
Metronidazole:
GET on the Metro for BCG
Giardia
Enameoba
Trichomonas
Bacteroides
Clostridium Diff
Gardnerella Vaginalis
INH
injures neurons and hepatocytes
Rifampin: 4 R's
RNA polymerase inhibitor
Revs up p450
Red/orange secretions
Rapid resistance if used alone
Anti-TB drugs:
help you RESPIrE
Rifampin
Ethambutol
Streptomycin
Pyrazinamide
INH
Ethionamide

all hepatotoxic!