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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bias introduced into study when a clinician is aware of pt's tx type.
observational bias
bias introduced when screening detects a disease and thus lengthens time from dx to death.
lead-time bias
you want to know if race affects infant mortality, but most of the variation in infant mortality is predicted by SES, then SES is a ...?
confounding variable
number of true positives divided by the number of pts w/ disease is called...
highly sensitive tests have a low number of false positives or false negatives? what are these tests used for?
low false negatives

rule out disease
PPD reactivity is used as a screening test b/c most people w/ TB (except those who are anergic) will have a pos. PPD. highly sensitive or specific?
highly sensitive for TB
chronic diseases such as SLE - higher prevalence or incidence?
higher prevalence
cross-sectional survey - incidence or prevalence?
epidemics such as influenza - higher prevalence or incidence?
higher incidence
cohort study - incidence or prevalence?
incidence and prevalence
case-control study - incidence or prevalence?
describe a test that consistently gives identical results, but wrong ones.
high reliability, low validity
difference b/w cohort and case-control study?
cohort studies can be used to calculate relative risk (RR), and/or odds ratio (OR). case-control studies can be used to calculate an OR.
attributable risk?
incidence rate (IR) of a disease in exposed minus the IR of disease in unexposed
relative risk?
the IR of a disease in a population exposed to a certain factor divided by the IR of those NOT exposed
odds ratio?
likelihood of a disease among individuals exposed to a risk factor compared to those who have not been exposed
number needed to treat?
1 divided by (rate in untreated group - rate in treated group)
in which pts do you initiate colorectal CA screening early?
pts with IBD; those with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)/hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal CA (HNPCC); and those who have first-degree relatives with adenomatous polyps (<60 yrs of age) or colorectal CA
most common CA in men and most common cause of death from CA in men?
prostate CA is most common CA

lung CA is most common cause of CA death
percentage of cases w/in 1 SD, 2 SD, 3 SD of the mean?
birth rate?
number of live births per 1,000 population
fertility rate?
number of live births per 1,000 women 15-44 yrs of age
mortality rate?
number of deaths per 1,000 population
neonatal mortality?
number of deaths from birth to 28d per 1,000 live births
postnatal mortality?
number of deaths from 28d to 1yr per 1,000 live births
infant mortality?
number of deaths from birth to 1yr of age per 1,000 live births (neonatal / postnatal mortality)
fetal mortality?
number of deaths from 20wks' gestation to birth per 1,000 total births
perinatal mortality?
number of deaths from 20wks' gestation to 1mo of life per 1,000 total births
maternal mortality?
number of deaths during pregnancy to 90d postpartum per 100,000 live births
T or F: after pt gives consent, he must continue tx
False. pts may change their mind at any time; exceptions to requirement of consent are emergencies and lack of decision-making capacity
15yo pregnant girl needs hospitalization for preeclampsia. inform parents?
No. parental consent is not necessary for med tx of pregnant minors
is there a problem? doc refers pt for an MRI at facility he/she owns
conflict of interest
involuntary psych hospitalization can be done for what 3 reasons?
1. pt danger to self
2. pt danger to others
3. pt gravely disabled (can't provide for basic daily needs)
T or F: withdrawing life-sustaining care is ethically distinct from withholding sustaining care.
False. withdrawing and withholding life are the same, ethically.
when can a doc refuse to continue treating a pt on grounds of futility?
when no rationale for tx,
maximal intervention is failing,
a given intervention has already failed, and
tx will not achieve goals of care
8yo child in serious accident. needs transfusion, but parents aren't around.
treat immediately. consent is implied in emergencies
conditions when confidentiality must be overridden?
real threat of harm to third parties; suicidal intentions; certain contagious diseases; elder and child abuse
involuntary commitment or isolation for med tx may be undertaken for what reason?
when tx noncompliance represents a serious danger to public health (eg. active TB)
10yo child presents in status epilepticus, but her parents refuse tx on religious grounds
treat b/c disease represents immediate threat to child's life; then seek court order
son asks that his mom not be told about her recently discovered CA.
pt's family cannot require that a doc withhold info from the pt