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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"Sawtooth" P waves
Atrial flutter
Unstable angina
New, worsening, or occurs at rest
Antihypertensive for diabetic patient with proteinuria
ACEI
Hypotension, distant heart sounds, and JVD
Beck's triad - cardiac tamponade
Drugs that slow AV node transmission
Beta-blockers, digoxin, and CCBs
S/E of niacin
Flushing and pruritis
Systolic ejection murmur heard along lateral sternal border that increases with Valsalva maneuver and standing
HOCM
Diastolic, decrescendo, high-pitched, blowing murmur best heard sitting up; increases with decreased preload (e.g. handgrip maneuver)
Aortic stenosis
Holosystolic murmur that radiates to the axillae or carotids
MR
Mid- to late low-pitched diastolic murmur
MS
Treatment for atrial fibrillation or flutter
Cardiovert if unstable. Rate control with beta-blockers or CCBs if stable or chronic.
Treatment for ventricular fibrillation
Immediate cardioversion
Fever, pericarditis, and increased ESR 2-4 weeks post-MI
Dressler's syndrome - autoimmune
IV drug user p/w JVD and holosystolic murmur at left sternal border. Tx?
Treat heart failure and replace tricuspid valve
Diagnostic test for HOCM
Echo
Pulsus paradoxus
A fall in systolic BP > 10mmHg with inspiration - seen in cardiac tamponade
Low-voltage, diffuse ST-segment elevation on EKG
Pericarditis
Definition of HTN
BP > 140/90 on 3 separate occasions 2 weeks apart
Evaluation of a pulsatile abdominal mass and bruit
Abdominal US and CT
Indications for surgical repair of AAA
> 5.5 cm, rapidly enlarging, symptomatic, or ruptured
Metabolic syndrome
Abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, HTN, insulin resistance, and prothrombotic or proinflammatory state
Target LDL in diabetic pt
< 70
Signs of active ischemia during stress testing
Angina, ST-segment changes on EKG, or decreased BP
EKG findings suggestive of MI
ST elevation, flattened T waves, Q waves
Coronary territory of LAD
Anterior wall and septum
Coronary territory of PDA
Inferior wall
Coronary territory of left circumflex and RCA
Posterior wall
ST-segment elevation with normal cardiac enzymes
Prinzmetal's angina
Common sx of silent MI
CHF, shock, altered mental status
Coagulation parameter affected by warfarin
PT
Endocarditis prophylaxis
Oral surgery - amox; GI/GU procedure - amp/gent prior and amox after
6 P's of ischemia from PVD
Pain, pallor, pulselessness, paralysis, paresthesia, poikilothermia
Virchow's triad
Stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage
MCC of HTN in young women
OCPs
MCC of HTN in young men
EtOH
"Stuck on" appearance
Seborrheic keratosis
Red plaques with silvery-white scales and sharp margins
Psoriasis
MC type of skin cancer
BCC
Pearly-colored papule with translucent surface and telangiectasias
BCC
Positive Nikolsky's sign
Pemphigus vulgaris
Negative Nikolsky's sign
Bullous pemphigoid
Flat-topped papules
Lichen planus
Iris-like target lesions
Erythema multiforme
Adolescent p/w annular patch of alopecia with broken-off, stubby hairs
Alopecia areata (autoimmune)
Pinkish, scaling, flat lesions on the chest and back; "spaghetti-and-meatballs" on KOH
Pityriasis versicolor
A premalignant lesion from sun exposure that can lead to SCC
Actinic keratosis
"Dewdrops on a rose pedal"
Primary varicella
Treatment for cradle cap
Antifungals (if any)
Inflammation and epithelial thinning of anogenital area, predominantly in postmenopausal women
Lichen sclerosis
Exophytic nodules on the skin with varying degrees of scaling or ulceration; the second MC type of skin cancer
SCC
"Stuck on" appearance
Seborrheic keratosis
Red plaques with silvery-white scales and sharp margins
Psoriasis
MC type of skin cancer
BCC
Pearly-colored papule with translucent surface and telangiectasias
BCC
"Stuck on" appearance
Seborrheic keratosis
Positive Nikolsky's sign
Pemphigus vulgaris
Red plaques with silvery-white scales and sharp margins
Psoriasis
Negative Nikolsky's sign
Bullous pemphigoid
MC type of skin cancer
BCC
Flat-topped papules
Lichen planus
Pearly-colored papule with translucent surface and telangiectasias
BCC
Iris-like target lesions
Erythema multiforme
Positive Nikolsky's sign
Pemphigus vulgaris
Adolescent p/w annular patch of alopecia with broken-off, stubby hairs
Alopecia areata (autoimmune)
Negative Nikolsky's sign
Bullous pemphigoid
Pinkish, scaling, flat lesions on the chest and back; "spaghetti-and-meatballs" on KOH
Pityriasis versicolor
Flat-topped papules
Lichen planus
A premalignant lesion from sun exposure that can lead to SCC
Actinic keratosis
Iris-like target lesions
Erythema multiforme
"Dewdrops on a rose pedal"
Primary varicella
Adolescent p/w annular patch of alopecia with broken-off, stubby hairs
Alopecia areata (autoimmune)
Treatment for cradle cap
Antifungals (if any)
Pinkish, scaling, flat lesions on the chest and back; "spaghetti-and-meatballs" on KOH
Pityriasis versicolor
A premalignant lesion from sun exposure that can lead to SCC
Actinic keratosis
Inflammation and epithelial thinning of anogenital area, predominantly in postmenopausal women
Lichen sclerosis
"Dewdrops on a rose pedal"
Primary varicella
Exophytic nodules on the skin with varying degrees of scaling or ulceration; the second MC type of skin cancer
SCC
Treatment for cradle cap
Antifungals (if any)
Inflammation and epithelial thinning of anogenital area, predominantly in postmenopausal women
Lichen sclerosis
Exophytic nodules on the skin with varying degrees of scaling or ulceration; the second MC type of skin cancer
SCC
"Stuck on" appearance
Seborrheic keratosis
Red plaques with silvery-white scales and sharp margins
Psoriasis
MC type of skin cancer
BCC
Pearly-colored papule with translucent surface and telangiectasias
BCC
Positive Nikolsky's sign
Pemphigus vulgaris
Negative Nikolsky's sign
Bullous pemphigoid
Flat-topped papules
Lichen planus
Iris-like target lesions
Erythema multiforme
Adolescent p/w annular patch of alopecia with broken-off, stubby hairs
Alopecia areata (autoimmune)
Pinkish, scaling, flat lesions on the chest and back; "spaghetti-and-meatballs" on KOH
Pityriasis versicolor
A premalignant lesion from sun exposure that can lead to SCC
Actinic keratosis
"Dewdrops on a rose pedal"
Primary varicella
Treatment for cradle cap
Antifungals (if any)
Inflammation and epithelial thinning of anogenital area, predominantly in postmenopausal women
Lichen sclerosis
Exophytic nodules on the skin with varying degrees of scaling or ulceration; the second MC type of skin cancer
SCC
MCC of hypothyroidism
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Lab findings in Hashimoto's thyroiditis
High TSH, low T4, antimicrosomal antibodies
Exopthalmos, pretibial myxedema, and decreased TSH
Graves' disease
1st and 2nd MCC of Cushing's syndrome
1) Iatrogenic corticosteroid administration; 2) Cushing's disease
Pt c/o HA, weakness, and polyuria; exam reveals HTN and tetany; labs reveal hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis
Primary hyeraldosteronism (2/2 Conn's syndrome or b/l adrenal hyperplasia)
Hyponatremia in euvolemic post-op pt
SIADH 2/2 stress
Antidiabetic agent a/w lactic acidosis
Metformin
Pt p/w new weakness, N/V, wt loss, and skin pigmentation. Labs show hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Tx?
Replacement glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and IV fluids (pt has primary adrenal insufficiency)
Goal HbA1c for pt w/ DM
< 7.0
Tx of DKA
Fluids, insulin, and aggressive replacement of electrolytes (e.g. K+)
NNT
1/(rate in untreated group - rate in treated group)
In which pts do you initiate colorectal cancer screening early?
Pts w/ IBD, FAP, HNPCC, or first-degree relatives with colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps that presented at <60yo
MC cancer in men and MCC of death from cancer in men
Prostate is the MC cancer; lung cancer is the MCC of death from cancer
Fertility rate
Number of live births per 1000 females (15-44 yo) per yr
Neonatal mortality rate
Number of deaths from birth to age 28d per 1000 live births per yr
Postnatal mortality rate
Number of deaths from 28d to 1yo per 1000 live births per yr
Infant mortality rate
Number of deaths from birth to 1yo per 1000 live births per yr (= neonatal + postnatal mortality rates)
Fetal mortality rate
Number of deaths from 20wks EGA to birth per 1000 total births per yr
Perinatal mortality rate
Number of eaths from 20wks EGA to 1mo of age per 1000 total births per yr
Maternal mortality rate
Number of deaths during pregnancy to 90 days postpartum per *100,000* live births per yr
A 15yo pregnant girl requires hospitalization for pre-eclampsia. Is parental consent required?
No. Parental consent is not required for medical tx of pregnant minors.
Involuntary psychiatric hospitalization can be undertaken for which 3 reasons?
Danger to self, danger to others, or gravely disabled (unable to provide basic needs)
When can an MD refuse to continue tx on grounds of futility?
When there is no rationale for tx, maximal intervention is failing, a given intervention has already failed, and tx will not achieve goals of care.