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30 Cards in this Set

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Statistics
The branch of mathematics that examines ways to process and analyze data.
Variables
Characteristics of items or individuals.
Population
Consists of all the members of a group about which you want to draw a conclusion.
Sample
The Portion of the population selected for analysis.
Parameter
is a numerical measure that describes a characteristic of a population
Statistic
A Numerical measure that describes a characteristic of a sample.
Descriptive Statistics
focuses on collecting, summerizing, and presenting a set of data. A
Inferential Statistics
uses sample data to draw conclusions about a population.
Primary Sources
The data when it is collected by the one using the data for analysis.
Secondary Sources
When the individual using the data has gathered their sources from another source.
Data
The observed values of variables.
Categorical Variables
Yield categorical responses, such as yes and no.
Numerical Variables
Yield numerical responses, such as height, weight.
Discrete Variables
Produce numerical responses (counting)
Continuous Variables
Produce numerical responses (measuring)
Central Tendency
The extent to which all of the data values group around a central value.
Variation
The amount of dispersion or scattering of values away from a central value.
Shape
The pattern of the distribution of values from the lowest to the highest value.
Arithmetic Mean
The most common measure of central tendency. Serves as a balance point for all data
Mode
The value in a set of data appears most frequently.
Quartiles
Split a data set into four equal parts.
Range
Is the simplist numerical descriptive measure of variation in a set of data.
Geometric Mean
Measure the rate of change of a variable over time. The geometric mean is the nth root of the product of n values.
Interquartile Range
Also called the midspread, is the difference between the third and the first quartiles in a set of data.
Sample Variance
Is the sum of the squared differences around the mean divided by the sample size minus one.
Sample Standard Deviation
Is the square root of the sum of the mean divided by the sample size minus one.
Coefficient of Variation
Is the relative measure of variation that is always expressed as a percentage rather than in terms of units of the particular data. Denoted by CV
Z Scores
the difference between the value and the mean divided by the population size N
Population Variance
measure variation in population. This is represented by sigma squared.
The Empirical Rule
Quick Estimation of the spread of data given the mean and standard deviation of a set of data that follows normal distribution.
+/- 1 SD = 68%
+/- 2 SD = 95%
+/- 3 SD = 99.7%