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 Statistics The branch of mathematics that examines ways to process and analyze data. Variables Characteristics of items or individuals. Population Consists of all the members of a group about which you want to draw a conclusion. Sample The Portion of the population selected for analysis. Parameter is a numerical measure that describes a characteristic of a population Statistic A Numerical measure that describes a characteristic of a sample. Descriptive Statistics focuses on collecting, summerizing, and presenting a set of data. A Inferential Statistics uses sample data to draw conclusions about a population. Primary Sources The data when it is collected by the one using the data for analysis. Secondary Sources When the individual using the data has gathered their sources from another source. Data The observed values of variables. Categorical Variables Yield categorical responses, such as yes and no. Numerical Variables Yield numerical responses, such as height, weight. Discrete Variables Produce numerical responses (counting) Continuous Variables Produce numerical responses (measuring) Central Tendency The extent to which all of the data values group around a central value. Variation The amount of dispersion or scattering of values away from a central value. Shape The pattern of the distribution of values from the lowest to the highest value. Arithmetic Mean The most common measure of central tendency. Serves as a balance point for all data Mode The value in a set of data appears most frequently. Quartiles Split a data set into four equal parts. Range Is the simplist numerical descriptive measure of variation in a set of data. Geometric Mean Measure the rate of change of a variable over time. The geometric mean is the nth root of the product of n values. Interquartile Range Also called the midspread, is the difference between the third and the first quartiles in a set of data. Sample Variance Is the sum of the squared differences around the mean divided by the sample size minus one. Sample Standard Deviation Is the square root of the sum of the mean divided by the sample size minus one. Coefficient of Variation Is the relative measure of variation that is always expressed as a percentage rather than in terms of units of the particular data. Denoted by CV Z Scores the difference between the value and the mean divided by the population size N Population Variance measure variation in population. This is represented by sigma squared. The Empirical Rule Quick Estimation of the spread of data given the mean and standard deviation of a set of data that follows normal distribution. +/- 1 SD = 68% +/- 2 SD = 95% +/- 3 SD = 99.7%