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30 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Statistics

The branch of mathematics that examines ways to process and analyze data.


Variables

Characteristics of items or individuals.


Population

Consists of all the members of a group about which you want to draw a conclusion.


Sample

The Portion of the population selected for analysis.


Parameter

is a numerical measure that describes a characteristic of a population


Statistic

A Numerical measure that describes a characteristic of a sample.


Descriptive Statistics

focuses on collecting, summerizing, and presenting a set of data. A


Inferential Statistics

uses sample data to draw conclusions about a population.


Primary Sources

The data when it is collected by the one using the data for analysis.


Secondary Sources

When the individual using the data has gathered their sources from another source.


Data

The observed values of variables.


Categorical Variables

Yield categorical responses, such as yes and no.


Numerical Variables

Yield numerical responses, such as height, weight.


Discrete Variables

Produce numerical responses (counting)


Continuous Variables

Produce numerical responses (measuring)


Central Tendency

The extent to which all of the data values group around a central value.


Variation

The amount of dispersion or scattering of values away from a central value.


Shape

The pattern of the distribution of values from the lowest to the highest value.


Arithmetic Mean

The most common measure of central tendency. Serves as a balance point for all data


Mode

The value in a set of data appears most frequently.


Quartiles

Split a data set into four equal parts.


Range

Is the simplist numerical descriptive measure of variation in a set of data.


Geometric Mean

Measure the rate of change of a variable over time. The geometric mean is the nth root of the product of n values.


Interquartile Range

Also called the midspread, is the difference between the third and the first quartiles in a set of data.


Sample Variance

Is the sum of the squared differences around the mean divided by the sample size minus one.


Sample Standard Deviation

Is the square root of the sum of the mean divided by the sample size minus one.


Coefficient of Variation

Is the relative measure of variation that is always expressed as a percentage rather than in terms of units of the particular data. Denoted by CV


Z Scores

the difference between the value and the mean divided by the population size N


Population Variance

measure variation in population. This is represented by sigma squared.


The Empirical Rule

Quick Estimation of the spread of data given the mean and standard deviation of a set of data that follows normal distribution.
+/ 1 SD = 68% +/ 2 SD = 95% +/ 3 SD = 99.7% 