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_______ _______ are acute leukemias which are very difficult to treat
Monocytic Leukemias
______ are relatively benign tumors of Monocytes that now live in the tissues.
Histiocytomas
Also called macrophages or histiocytes
_____ are tumors of macrophages found in lymph nodes or other lymphatic tissues.
Reticulocytomas
name has a term dealing with eye
Cancer of histiocytes often found in AIDS patients and APPEAES to be caused by a Herpes virus.
Karpsi's Sarcoma
_____ are cancers of the blood cells.

Often comes from undifferentiated bone marrow cells.
Leukemias
Leukemia cells often appear in blood as...
large blast cells
Since there are many leukemias, they reflect ...
many different developmental stages of different kinds of blood cells
If malignant, the more ____ or ___ leukemia is.
undifferentiated


_Blast-like_
____ are leukemias that arise from erythroblasts
Erythro-leukemias
rare in humans
_____ are common in humans.
Myelocytic leukemias
Another example of leukemia
Leukemia

initially benign -> malignant
Chronic Leukemia
can become a_ _ _ _
Leukemia

chronic leukemia to acute leukemia shows a ...
CHANGE is called "blast transformation"

more primitive and blast-like
change to look ....
Which are more dificult to treat... chronic or acute (blastic)
Acute
If lymphocytes are involved with leukemia they can be...
I. Acute lymphocytic
II. Chronic lymphocytic
III. Both
IV. None of the above
III. Both
Leukemia

Leukemias that derive from ____ ____ ____ that would have given rise to the other kinds of white blood cells also can form either chronic or acute leukemia.
Bone Marrow Cells
Leukemia

Generally more difficult to treat than their lymphocytic counterparts.
Myelocytic Leukemia
Leukemia

If leukemia does not have a recognizable chronic stage... it is said to be ______ when recognized.
Acute (blastic)
Leukemia

Acute erythrocytic leukemia is also erythroblastic leukemia. In respect to their names, give reason?
It is leukemia of red blood cell precursors.

Acute and blastic is interchangeable for highly malignant cancers...

Chronic and cystic are intertangeable to describe leukemias less highly malignant
Leukemia

Which are more benign:

Lymphomas or Lymphosarcomas?

(cancers of lymphocytes in lymph nodes)
Lymphomas

(e.g. Hodgkin's Lymphoma)
Leukemia

What cancers dissolve the bones where they reside?
Multiple Myelomas
Leukemia

What are Multiple myelomas?
Cancers of antibody producing B lymphocytes which can occur in bone marrow.
Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes are granulocytes.
True or False.
False.

No. Does not contain recognizable granules.
Lymphocytes

There are two kinds based on where they mature. The two places are:
Bone Marrow

and the

Thymus
Lymphocytes

Where do they originate from?
Lymphoid Stem cells in bone marrow
Lymphocytes

Where do some lymphocytes undergo maturation in?
Thumus
Lymphocytes

T-cells, mature lymphocytes, are from....
Thymus
Lymphocytes

____ are recognized by the pressure of protein antigen on their cell surface.
T- cells
Terminology

Adenoma
Any glandular tissue that becomes a neoplasm
adeno- means gland
Terminology

Adeno Carcinoma
cancer arising from glandular tissue
Terminology

Blastoma
Tumor of embryonic cells
Terminology: Blastoma

What is a tumor of retinal cells which occurs in children?
Retinoblastoma
Terminology

Cancers named as if benign but are malignant. True for cancers of the _____.
Brain
Generally, not invasive or metastatic... due to location
Terminology

Astrocytoma, Ependyoma, Oligodendrolioma....

benign or malignant?
malignant due to location
Terminology: Non CNS malignancies

malignant melanoma, mesothelioma, myeloma, leukemia, teratoma

benign or malignant
Malignant
Terminology: Non CNS malignancies

Malignant melanoma

1. should be called___
2. where do they often travel
1. melanocytes carcinoma
2.brain... difficult to treat
1. think of tissue location
Terminology: Non CNS malignancies

Mesothelioma

1.cells look ____
2. where spreads?
1. benign

2 spreads to many nodes
Terminology: Non CNS Malignancies

MYELOMA

1. consists of ___ in bones, which kills host.

2. Secretes what?
1. B lymphocytes

2. large amounts of antibodies
Terminology: Inconcsistent Nomen.

Leukemia

1. meaning?
2. what does it not describe?
3. what of the blood cell origin?
1. "excessive numbers of WBCs in blood"

2. Does not say what cells are neoplastic or
it will kill host if untreated

3. Does not reveal blood cells are of mesodermal origin... SARCOMA
Terminology: Inconsitency

Teratoma

1. cancer of what?
2. what does it do? what does it contain?
1. sperm and egg cells

2. forms embryo like tumors containing hair, teeth , body parts (e.g. eyes)
Think teeth where it doesn't belong
Terminology: Mixed Tumors

Mammary Tumors
- tumors have mix of glandular and connective tissue elements... both look highly abnormal... hard to tell if tumor cell

- tumor cell secretes GF that affect other cells
difficulty?

secretion?
Terminology: Mixed Tumors

Lymphoreticular Tumors
- lymphocytes and supporting reticular tissues

- one is anaplastic (cancerous)
- other is dysplastic (tries to catch up with cancerous one, but can't tell difference)
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

If we know the tissue origin... what two things can we deduce.
1. determine best treatment

2. Make prognosis of patient's recovery
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Mammary tumors
... if late, prognosis
poor

Late detection when malignant is
its malignant
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Lung Cancer
early detection needed for recovery

Never diagnosed early- internal and no early signs
Not observable...
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Lipomas
fatty tissue tumors
- almost always benign
-develops after age 40
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Papillomas
-warts, skin, not mucous membranes
- product of virus

-almost always benign unless (exposed to chemical carcinogens or excessive sunlight)
warts, skin, not mucous membranes
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Skin-

~melanocytes...
~epithelial...
melanocytes.. malignant
epithelial... benign ( but progression)
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Bone-
~osteocytes...
~cartilage...
osteocytes.... malignant

cartilage... benign
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Two types of examination...
1. Gross examination

2. Histological examination
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Gross examination

~identifies....
-identifies ORGAN of origin (e.g. mammary)

- may not tell cell type b/c organs have many different cells
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Gross examination

~Observable indicators of malignancy
1. speed of growth
2. necrosis (outstrips blood supply... loc. usually center)
3. attachment (cling to other regions- invasive; free flowing- benign e.g lipomas)
4. metastsis (new tumors)
4 indicators

S,N,A,M
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Gross examination

~ For solid tumors, what can be used for clinical staging ( how far along cancer is)
metastasis and attachment
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Histological examination
~ biopsy (piece of tumor) in 10% formalin

~ preservation of cell-cell relationships

~Hematoxylin (nucleus- nucleic acids blue stain)
~Eosin (red cytoplsm
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Histological examination

Excisional Biopsy is
when entire tumor taken out
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Histological examination

~determines...
1. cell type origin (only one kind)
2. Abnormal appearance of cell
3. Relationship of tumor to other cells
4. Stage of growth or Progress
5. Success of treatment
5 things
CO, AA, RoC, PoG, ST
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Histological examination

~Relationship of tumor to cells
1. encapsulation

2. invasiveness

3. anatomic barriers (going through BM)~ before breaks through carcinoma in situ
ex. cervical cancer
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Differentiate cancer cells from abnormal tissue changes due to ..
Tissue Stress or Disease...
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Hypertrophy
- enlargement of tissue
- no change in #s
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Hyperplasia
- increase in # (usually due to GF)
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Metaplasia

e.g. squamous metaplasia, cells in bronchii due to smoking lose orig. shape
-mild change in morphology

-reversible
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Dysplasia
-severe change in morphology of cells

-excessive stimulation from outside cells

-reversible
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Anaplasia
-synonymous to cancer

-severe change in morphology of tisssues and cells assoc. with genetic change within cells

-irreversible
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

To Identify undifferentiated cells..
1. Electron Microscopy
2. Histochemical Examination
3. Immunocytochemistry
4. Cytological examination (fluid aspirate; solid- smear, needle aspirte)
CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Cytology- appearance of individual cells can indicate cancer, BUT can not tell..
-anatomical boundaries

-relationship between cells