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### 49 Cards in this Set

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 What is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution of a statistic? Standard error What is the standard deviation? The square root of the variance When would you use the t test instead of the z-score? When scores are transformed using the population standard error of the mean to estimate the standard error of the mean Conducting more t-tests... ...decreases the reliability of the data When would you use a chi-square test? When you have a set of expected frequencies and you need to figure out how consistent the observed frequencies are with the null hypothesis Two-factor ANOVA is used when... ...groups simultaneously belong to more than one classification Total df for ANOVA N-1 Within df for ANOVA N-p Between df for ANOVA p-1 What does p equal? The number of groups df for Factor 1 in 2 factor ANOVA (# of factor 1 levels)-1 df for interaction 1x2 in 2 factor ANOVA (df1)(df2) MSb SSb/dfb MSw SSw/dfw What is the F ratio represented by? MSb/MSw What does the F ratio help you find? The probability that 2 variance estimates differ from each other only by sampling error If there is no treatment effect, what does F equal? 1 A main effect is... ...a difference among population means for levels of a factor, ignoring the other factors An interaction is... ...when the effect on one factor is not the same as the effect on all levels of another factor Level = df + 1 Number of groups = (# of A levels)(# of B levels) Within group variability= Within group sum of squares Total amount of between group variability = SStotal-SSwithin Degrees of freedom for Pearson = N-2 r2 represents... ...the percent of variance explained by knowing the extent of the treatment Spearman Rank-Order Correlation (rs)... ...tests relationship between rankings of raters For a 95% confidence interval, the z-score is 1.96 Permutations are ________, and combinations are ________. ordered, not Is an ANOVA test directional or nondirectional? Nondirectional In ANOVA, what is the null hypothesis? The population means are equal to each other and to the grand mean What is the alternative hypothesis in ANOVA Not Ho Total variability = Between groups source + Within groups source xij i participant in j group Tj total of scores in group j n1 number of participants in 1st group What is a mean square similar to? variance How is a mean square found? By dividing SS by its df MSbetween reflects... treatment effects + error MSwithin reflects... error Ratio scale examples Kelvin, height, weight Interval scale examples Fahrenheit/Celcius Ordinal scale examples Rankings Nominal scale examples Make of car Ratio scales Magnitude, equal intervals, absolute zero Interval scales Magnitude, equal intervals Ordinal scales Magnitude Which measure of central tendency is sensitive to extreme values? Mean Range = Largest score - Smallest score A percentile rank is a _______, while a percentile point is a _______. percentage, score