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### 22 Cards in this Set

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 Statistics is the art and science of learning from data Statistics has three main Design Description Inference Population and sample Descriptive statistics Inferential statistics Type of variables Qualitative or Categorical variables Quantitative variables Mean the average of the total SUM Median find the Median of {12, 3 and 5} Answer: 5 Quartiles Find the median, lower quartile and upper quartile of the following numbers. 12, 5, 22, 30, 7, 36, 14, 42, 15, 53, 25 (Put in ascending order) 5, 7, 12 (Lower Quartile), 14, 15, 22 (Median), 25, 30, 36 (Upper Quartile), 42, 53 Empirical Rule : for a bell-shaped distribution, about 68% (95%, 99.7%) of the data fall with in one (two, three) standard deviation of the mean. (SRS) simple random sample ‘n’ subjects from a population is one in which each possible sample of that size has the same chance of being selected Convenience Sample a type of survey sample that is easy to obtain -Unlikely to be representative of the population -Often severe biases result from such a sample Volunteer Sample most common form of convenience sample -Subjects volunteer for the sample -Volunteers do not tend to be representative of the entire population Bias Tendency to systematically favor certain parts of the population over others Sampling Bias Occurs when using biased samples, which are based on sampling methods such as using nonrandom samples or having undercoverage Nonresponse bias occurs when some sampled subjects cannot be reached or refuse to participate or fail to answer some questions Response bias occurs when the subject gives an incorrect response or the question is misleading. Identify the population of all subjects of interest Construct a sampling frame which attempts to list all subjects in the population Use a random sampling design to select n subjects from the sampling frame Be cautious of sampling bias due to nonrandom samples Experimental units the subjects of an experiment; the entities that we measure in an experiment Treatment A specific experimental condition imposed on the subjects of the study; the treatments correspond to assigned values of the explanatory variable Explanatory variable Defines the groups to be compared with respect to values on the response variable The outcome measured on the subjects to reveal the effect of the treatment(s). The outcome measured on the subjects to reveal the effect of the treatment(s).