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22 Cards in this Set

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Statistics
is the art and science of learning from data
Statistics has three main
Design
Description
Inference
Population and sample
Descriptive statistics
Inferential statistics
Type of variables
Qualitative or Categorical variables
Quantitative variables
Mean
the average of the total SUM
Median
find the Median of {12, 3 and 5}

Answer: 5
Quartiles
Find the median, lower quartile and upper quartile of the following numbers.

12, 5, 22, 30, 7, 36, 14, 42, 15, 53, 25 (Put in ascending order)
5, 7, 12 (Lower Quartile), 14, 15, 22 (Median), 25, 30, 36 (Upper Quartile), 42, 53
Empirical Rule
: for a bell-shaped distribution, about 68% (95%, 99.7%) of the data fall with in one (two, three) standard deviation of the mean.
(SRS)
simple random sample
‘n’ subjects from a population is one in which each possible sample of that size has the same chance of being selected
Convenience Sample
a type of survey sample that is easy to obtain
-Unlikely to be representative of the population
-Often severe biases result from such a sample
Volunteer Sample
most common form of convenience sample
-Subjects volunteer for the sample
-Volunteers do not tend to be representative of the entire population
Bias
Tendency to systematically favor certain parts of the population over others
Sampling Bias
Occurs when using biased samples, which are based on sampling methods such as using nonrandom samples or having undercoverage
Nonresponse bias
occurs when some sampled subjects cannot be reached or refuse to participate or fail to answer some questions
Response bias
occurs when the subject gives an incorrect response or the question is misleading.
Identify
the population of all subjects of interest
Construct
a sampling frame which attempts to list all subjects in the population
Use
a random sampling design to select n subjects from the sampling frame
Be
cautious of sampling bias due to nonrandom samples
Experimental units
the subjects of an experiment; the entities that we measure in an experiment
Treatment
A specific experimental condition imposed on the subjects of the study; the treatments correspond to assigned values of the explanatory variable
Explanatory variable
Defines the groups to be compared with respect to values on the response variable
The outcome measured on the subjects to reveal the effect of the treatment(s).
The outcome measured on the subjects to reveal the effect of the treatment(s).