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### 43 Cards in this Set

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 random sampling process of selecting a sample such that the selection of one observation is independent of the selection of any other observation parameters characteristics of populations inferential statistics statistical procedures used to make decisions about a population based from a sample sampling distribution hypothetical distribution of the values of a statistic if it were computed repeatedly with similar samples absolute research research with the purpose of measuring some phenomenon comparative research research that compares the results from two or more groups scientific method (steps according to stats) 1. encounter and identify the problem 2. formulate the hypotheses and define variables 3. think through the consequences of the hypotheses 4. design and run the study, collect data, compute stats, test hypotheses 5. draw conclusions continuous variable can take on an INFINITE number of values between 2 lengths discreet variable finite number of values between two sites independent variable values manipulated by the researcher dependent variable values measured by the researcher extraneous variable not manipulated or measured but they are affecting what you're measuring Three ways to control the extraneous variables (EV) 1. hold the participants constant on the EV 2. include EV in your design 3. randomize participants to groups subject bias subjects change their behavior based on what group they're in observer bias researcher changes how they treat participants based on what group they're in single-blind experiment subjects do not know what group they're in double-blind experiment both the researcher and the subjects do not know which group they're in causal relationship studied when there is manipulated variables and controlled EV *manipulation of the IV is key! IV -> DV predictive relationship a relationship that exists when a researcher can assert only that a change in one variable predicts a change in another variable PV -> CV predictor variable variable in a predictive relationship that is analogous to the independent variable; the researcher predicts from this variable criterion variable variable in a predictive relationship that is analogous to the dependent variable; the researcher predicts to this variable true experiment research that uses an IV and a DV and controls EV by randomization; causal relationships can be asserted when a true experiment is conducted observational research research that can assert only predictive relationships because of the absence of manipulation and randomization Quasi experimental designs designs in which the researcher can manipulate the IV but cannot randomly assign participants to groups Property of measurement: Identity your data is named and has meaning Property of measurement: Order a meaningful order in the values ex. 1st place and 2nd place Property of measurement: Distance a positive, consistent difference between values Property of measurement: true zero it lacks that variable ex. temperature does not have this... children - do have this internal validity external validity In a QED: how valid are your results generalizability of your results to other groups Scales of Measurement 1. Nominal 2. Ordinal 3. Interval 4. Ratio nominal has the characteristic of identity ordinal has identity and order interval has identity, order, and distance ratio has identity, order, distance, and a true-zero Characteristics of a bar graph use with qualitative data bars DON'T touch categories on X-axis frequency on Y-axis Characteristics of a histogram use with QUANTITATIVE data bars do touch intervals on X-axis frequency on Y-axis kurtosis deals with the peak of the distribution: mesokurtic patykurtic leptokurtic characteristics of median depends on frequency of scores and not their actual value recommended for skewed data not affected by outliers characteristics of the mean balance point in the distribution sum of the deviations = 0 sum of the squared deviations is a minimum the sample mean gives you the smallest amount of deviation sample standard deviation in original units as variability increases, st.dev. increases = 0 if no variance indicates relative standing sample variance a positive number = 0 if no variability as variability inc., st.dev. inc in squared units Least Squares Criterion E(x - mean)^2 is a minimum Z-score something minus its mean divided by the st. dev. expressed in terms of st. dev. units variance of the z scores is 1 st. dev. of z-scores is 1 Z is undefined the shape of the z-score distribution = x distribution