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### 65 Cards in this Set

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• Back
 nominal scale labels observations so that they fall into different categories; no rank or order ordinal scale the categories have separate names and are also ranked in terms of magnitude; rank and order apply interval scale consists of an ordered set of categories with equal intervals between points on the scale; addition and subtraction is possible, but multiplication and division are not ratio scale an interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero; addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division error variance variance not due to the IV independent events occurrence is not correlated with the occurrence of another event central limit theorem as the size of samples from the population approach infinity, the distribution of the means of those samples gets to be more and more normal family-wise type I error rate when there are multiple comparisons, the probability of making at least one type I error per-comparison error rate probability of error for each indivudal analysis within group variance sampling error between group variance chance + IV omega squared ω-squared; estimate of effect size in population analysis of main effects looking at whether or not the IV is significant analysis of main comparisons looking at levels of IV for an analysis; Tukey analysis of simple effects computed to determine a significant interaction; manipulating one variable and holding all others constant; Tukey analysis of simple comparisons comparing every combination of the IVs with every other cominations of IVs; Tukey orthogonal planned contrast; uncorrelated post hoc test posttests that are unplanned and occur after the analysis a posteriori comparisons unplanned; performed after omnibus f test is completed a priori comparisons comparisons chosen before analyzing the data k used to identify the number of treatment conditions quadratic trend one change of direction cubic trend two changes of direction interaction the effect of IVA on the DV depends on the level of IVB confounded comparisons comparison in which groups vary on more than one level of the IV assumptions of t-tests and ANOVAS DV is an interval or ratio scale Normally distributed Homogeneity of variance between groups research designs each subject is tested under only one level of the IV f-ratio test statistic for ANOVA; between variance / within variance critical value the value from a sampling distribution against which a computed statistic is compared to determine whether the null may be rejected R-squared estimate of eta-squared; calculation of effect size; formula: SSbetween/ SStotal analysis of simple comparisons comparing every one of the IVs with every other combination of the IVs; Tukey orthogonal planned contrast; uncorrelated post hoc test posttests that are unplanned and occur after the analysis a posteriori comparisons unplanned; performed after omnibus f test is completed a priori comparisons comparisons chosen before analyzing the data k used to identify the number of treatment conditions quadratic trend one change of direction; slope other than zero, three groups cubic trend two changes of direction interaction the effect of IVA on the DV depends on the level of IVB confounded comparisons comparison in which groups vary on more than one level of the IV assumptions of t-tests and ANOVAS DV is an interval or ratio scale Normally distributed Homogeneity of variance between groups research designs each subject is tested under only one level of the IV f-ratio test statistic for ANOVA; between variance / within variance critical value the value from a sampling distribution against which a computed statistic is compared to determine whether the null may be rejected R-squared estimate of eta-squared; calculation of effect size; formula: SSbetween/ SStotal df Total N-1 df Within N-k df Between k-1 # of comparisons for an analysis of simple comparisons k(k-1)/2 Levels of IV in a trend analysis Orthogonal (evenly-spaced) Same n IV & DV must be quantitative omnibus test used for an analysis of two or more groups and controls for family-wise error cell effect each cell is a distinct and independent group of subjects main effect the effect of the IV interaction effect cell effect- effect of IVA- effect of IVB eta-squared the proportion of variance in combined populations that can be accounted for by the IV; R-squared is an estimate of eta-squared df Total N-1 df Within N-k df Between k-1 # of comparisons for an analysis of simple comparisons k(k-1)/2 Levels of IV in a trend analysis Orthogonal (evenly-spaced) Same n IV & DV must be quantitative omnibus test used for an analysis of two or more groups and controls for family-wise error cell effect each cell is a distinct and independent group of subjects main effect the effect of the IV interaction effect cell effect- effect of IVA- effect of IVB eta-squared the proportion of variance in combined populations that can be accounted for by the IV; R-squared is an estimate of eta-squared