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65 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
nominal scale

labels observations so that they fall into different categories; no rank or order


ordinal scale

the categories have separate names and are also ranked in terms of magnitude; rank and order apply


interval scale

consists of an ordered set of categories with equal intervals between points on the scale; addition and subtraction is possible, but multiplication and division are not


ratio scale

an interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero; addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division


error variance

variance not due to the IV


independent events

occurrence is not correlated with the occurrence of another event


central limit theorem

as the size of samples from the population approach infinity, the distribution of the means of those samples gets to be more and more normal


familywise type I error rate

when there are multiple comparisons, the probability of making at least one type I error


percomparison error rate

probability of error for each indivudal analysis


within group variance

sampling error


between group variance

chance + IV


omega squared

ωsquared; estimate of effect size in population


analysis of main effects

looking at whether or not the IV is significant


analysis of main comparisons

looking at levels of IV for an analysis; Tukey


analysis of simple effects

computed to determine a significant interaction; manipulating one variable and holding all others constant; Tukey


analysis of simple comparisons

comparing every combination of the IVs with every other cominations of IVs; Tukey


orthogonal

planned contrast; uncorrelated


post hoc test

posttests that are unplanned and occur after the analysis


a posteriori comparisons

unplanned; performed after omnibus f test is completed


a priori comparisons

comparisons chosen before analyzing the data


k

used to identify the number of treatment conditions


quadratic trend

one change of direction


cubic trend

two changes of direction


interaction

the effect of IVA on the DV depends on the level of IVB


confounded comparisons

comparison in which groups vary on more than one level of the IV


assumptions of ttests and ANOVAS

DV is an interval or ratio scale
Normally distributed Homogeneity of variance 

between groups research designs

each subject is tested under only one level of the IV


fratio

test statistic for ANOVA; between variance / within variance


critical value

the value from a sampling distribution against which a computed statistic is compared to determine whether the null may be rejected


Rsquared

estimate of etasquared; calculation of effect size; formula: SSbetween/ SStotal


analysis of simple comparisons

comparing every one of the IVs with every other combination of the IVs; Tukey


orthogonal

planned contrast; uncorrelated


post hoc test

posttests that are unplanned and occur after the analysis


a posteriori comparisons

unplanned; performed after omnibus f test is completed


a priori comparisons

comparisons chosen before analyzing the data


k

used to identify the number of treatment conditions


quadratic trend

one change of direction; slope other than zero, three groups


cubic trend

two changes of direction


interaction

the effect of IVA on the DV depends on the level of IVB


confounded comparisons

comparison in which groups vary on more than one level of the IV


assumptions of ttests and ANOVAS

DV is an interval or ratio scale
Normally distributed Homogeneity of variance 

between groups research designs

each subject is tested under only one level of the IV


fratio

test statistic for ANOVA; between variance / within variance


critical value

the value from a sampling distribution against which a computed statistic is compared to determine whether the null may be rejected


Rsquared

estimate of etasquared; calculation of effect size; formula: SSbetween/ SStotal


df Total

N1


df Within

Nk


df Between

k1


# of comparisons for an analysis of simple comparisons

k(k1)/2


Levels of IV in a trend analysis

Orthogonal (evenlyspaced)
Same n IV & DV must be quantitative 

omnibus test

used for an analysis of two or more groups and controls for familywise error


cell effect

each cell is a distinct and independent group of subjects


main effect

the effect of the IV


interaction effect

cell effect effect of IVA effect of IVB


etasquared

the proportion of variance in combined populations that can be accounted for by the IV; Rsquared is an estimate of etasquared


df Total

N1


df Within

Nk


df Between

k1


# of comparisons for an analysis of simple comparisons

k(k1)/2


Levels of IV in a trend analysis

Orthogonal (evenlyspaced)
Same n IV & DV must be quantitative 

omnibus test

used for an analysis of two or more groups and controls for familywise error


cell effect

each cell is a distinct and independent group of subjects


main effect

the effect of the IV


interaction effect

cell effect effect of IVA effect of IVB


etasquared

the proportion of variance in combined populations that can be accounted for by the IV; Rsquared is an estimate of etasquared
