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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nominal scale
labels observations so that they fall into different categories; no rank or order
ordinal scale
the categories have separate names and are also ranked in terms of magnitude; rank and order apply
interval scale
consists of an ordered set of categories with equal intervals between points on the scale; addition and subtraction is possible, but multiplication and division are not
ratio scale
an interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero; addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
error variance
variance not due to the IV
independent events
occurrence is not correlated with the occurrence of another event
central limit theorem
as the size of samples from the population approach infinity, the distribution of the means of those samples gets to be more and more normal
family-wise type I error rate
when there are multiple comparisons, the probability of making at least one type I error
per-comparison error rate
probability of error for each indivudal analysis
within group variance
sampling error
between group variance
chance + IV
omega squared
ω-squared; estimate of effect size in population
analysis of main effects
looking at whether or not the IV is significant
analysis of main comparisons
looking at levels of IV for an analysis; Tukey
analysis of simple effects
computed to determine a significant interaction; manipulating one variable and holding all others constant; Tukey
analysis of simple comparisons
comparing every combination of the IVs with every other cominations of IVs; Tukey
orthogonal
planned contrast; uncorrelated
post hoc test
posttests that are unplanned and occur after the analysis
a posteriori comparisons
unplanned; performed after omnibus f test is completed
a priori comparisons
comparisons chosen before analyzing the data
k
used to identify the number of treatment conditions
quadratic trend
one change of direction
cubic trend
two changes of direction
interaction
the effect of IVA on the DV depends on the level of IVB
confounded comparisons
comparison in which groups vary on more than one level of the IV
assumptions of t-tests and ANOVAS
DV is an interval or ratio scale
Normally distributed
Homogeneity of variance
between groups research designs
each subject is tested under only one level of the IV
f-ratio
test statistic for ANOVA; between variance / within variance
critical value
the value from a sampling distribution against which a computed statistic is compared to determine whether the null may be rejected
R-squared
estimate of eta-squared; calculation of effect size; formula: SSbetween/ SStotal
analysis of simple comparisons
comparing every one of the IVs with every other combination of the IVs; Tukey
orthogonal
planned contrast; uncorrelated
post hoc test
posttests that are unplanned and occur after the analysis
a posteriori comparisons
unplanned; performed after omnibus f test is completed
a priori comparisons
comparisons chosen before analyzing the data
k
used to identify the number of treatment conditions
quadratic trend
one change of direction; slope other than zero, three groups
cubic trend
two changes of direction
interaction
the effect of IVA on the DV depends on the level of IVB
confounded comparisons
comparison in which groups vary on more than one level of the IV
assumptions of t-tests and ANOVAS
DV is an interval or ratio scale
Normally distributed
Homogeneity of variance
between groups research designs
each subject is tested under only one level of the IV
f-ratio
test statistic for ANOVA; between variance / within variance
critical value
the value from a sampling distribution against which a computed statistic is compared to determine whether the null may be rejected
R-squared
estimate of eta-squared; calculation of effect size; formula: SSbetween/ SStotal
df Total
N-1
df Within
N-k
df Between
k-1
# of comparisons for an analysis of simple comparisons
k(k-1)/2
Levels of IV in a trend analysis
Orthogonal (evenly-spaced)
Same n
IV & DV must be quantitative
omnibus test
used for an analysis of two or more groups and controls for family-wise error
cell effect
each cell is a distinct and independent group of subjects
main effect
the effect of the IV
interaction effect
cell effect- effect of IVA- effect of IVB
eta-squared
the proportion of variance in combined populations that can be accounted for by the IV; R-squared is an estimate of eta-squared
df Total
N-1
df Within
N-k
df Between
k-1
# of comparisons for an analysis of simple comparisons
k(k-1)/2
Levels of IV in a trend analysis
Orthogonal (evenly-spaced)
Same n
IV & DV must be quantitative
omnibus test
used for an analysis of two or more groups and controls for family-wise error
cell effect
each cell is a distinct and independent group of subjects
main effect
the effect of the IV
interaction effect
cell effect- effect of IVA- effect of IVB
eta-squared
the proportion of variance in combined populations that can be accounted for by the IV; R-squared is an estimate of eta-squared