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### 15 Cards in this Set

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 observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected data a collection of methods for planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data statistics the complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied; complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied population the collection of data from every member of the population census a subcollection of members selected from a population sample a numerical meausrement describing some characteristic of a population parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample statistic numbers representing counts or measurements quantitative data can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic qualitative data when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a countable number discrete data results from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps continuous (numerical) data characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only; can't be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as low to high) nominal level of measurement data that can be arranged in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless ordinal level of measurement like the ordinal level, with the additional property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful; data do not have a natural zero starting point interval level of measurement the interval level with the additional property that there is also a natural zero starting point; for values at this level differences and rations are both meaningful ration level of measurement