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15 Cards in this Set

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observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected
data
a collection of methods for planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data
statistics
the complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied; complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied
population
the collection of data from every member of the population
census
a subcollection of members selected from a population
sample
a numerical meausrement describing some characteristic of a population
parameter
a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample
statistic
numbers representing counts or measurements
quantitative data
can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic
qualitative data
when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a countable number
discrete data
results from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps
continuous (numerical) data
characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only; can't be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as low to high)
nominal level of measurement
data that can be arranged in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless
ordinal level of measurement
like the ordinal level, with the additional property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful; data do not have a natural zero starting point
interval level of measurement
the interval level with the additional property that there is also a natural zero starting point; for values at this level differences and rations are both meaningful
ration level of measurement