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### 18 Cards in this Set

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 what is statistics? a science of data what is data? numbers with a context what are individuals? the objects described by a set of data what is a variable? any characteristic of an individual wjat os a categorical variable? takes numerical values for arithmetic operations such as adding averageraging make sense. The values of quantative variables are usually recorded in a unot of a measurement such seconds or kilograms what is exploratory data analysis? uses graphs and numerical summaries to describe the variables in a data set and the relations among them,. How do we explore data? begin by exmaining each varibale itself. begin with graphs what is the distribution of a veriable? tells us how often it takes these values of a categorical varable are labels of categories How do you find a mean? add the values of all the observations and divide by the number of observations what is a median? the midpoint of a distribution how do you find medians? (1) arrange all observations in order of size, from smallest to largest (2) if the number of observations is oddd, the median M is the center observation in the ordered list. Find the location of the meidan by counting (n+1)/2 observations up from the bottom of the list. (3) if the number of the observation is even, the median M is the mean of the two center obserations in the ordered list. The location of the median is agains (n+1)/2 from the bottom of the list how do you calculate quartarlies? (1) locate the medium (2) Q1 is to the left of the median (3) Q3 is to the right How do you calculate the IQR? IQR= Q3-Q1 How do you find standard deviation? (X1-MEAN)+(X2-MEAN)+(X3-MEAN) OVER N-1 TAKE SOLUTION DIVIDE BY N SQUARE ROOT THAT ANWSER Approximately 68% of all observation lie between ______ of _________. the standard deviation the mean approx. 95% of observations fall between _____ of the ______. 2(standard deviation) of the mean approx. 99.7 of observations fall between ________ of the _______. 3(standard deviation) of the mean If x is an observation from a distribution that has mean and standard deviation, the standardized value of x (often called the z-score) is what? z= x-mean over standard deviation