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### 37 Cards in this Set

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 What is a center? A representative value that indicates where the middle of the data set is located What is a variation? A measure of the amount that the data values vary What is distribution? The nature or shape of the spread of the data over the range of the values (such as bell shaped, uniformed, or skewed) What is Outliers? Sample values that lies very far away from the vast majorities of other samples. In whisker plots its 1 &1/2 length away from both sides. What is Time? Changing characteristics over time. What does the acronym CVDOT stand for? Center, variation, deviation, outliers, & time. What is a good mnemonic to remember CVDOT? Computer Viruses Destroy Or Terminate What is frequency distribution (frequency table)? shows how a data set is partitioned among all of several categories (or classes) by listing al of the categories along with the number of data values in each of the categories What is a frequency? represents the number of original values that fell into that class. What is lower class limits? are the smallest # that can belong to the different classes. (in 60-69, 70-79 etc the 1st # 60, 70 are lower class limits) What is Upper class limits? are the largest #'s that can belong to a the different classes (in 60-69, 70-79 etc the 1st # 69, 79 are upper class limits) What are class boundaries? are the numbers used to separate the classes but without the gaps created by class limits. (in 60-69, 70-79, 69.5 is the class boundaries) *there are higher and lower class boundaries too What are class midpoints? values in the middle of the classes (60-69.5 has a midpoint of 64.5) What is Class width? the difference between 2 consecutive lower class limits or two consecutive lower class boundaries in a frequency distribution. (60-69, 70-79, has a class width of 10) What is the difference between a class width and a class boundary? Class boundaries are 3's in the gaps while class width is the actual difference between 2 consecutive lower limits or 2 consecutive lower class boundaries. How do u calculate class with? (maximum data) - (minimum data) -------------------------------------------------- Number of classes What is relative frequency distribution? like a frequency distribution but with percentages (%'s) in frequency. How do u calculate relative frequency distribution? (class frequency / sum of all frequencies) X 100% What is cumulative frequency? The sum of the frequency as it goes down the list of frequencies from top to bottom. ( frequencies 1,2,3 has a cumulative of 1, 1+2=3, 3+3=9) What happens when a frequency has the word "relative" on it? Frequencies are always in percentages (%'s) What is a histogram? a graph consisting of bars of equal width drawn adjacent to each other without gaps. The Horizontal scale represents classes or quantitative data values and the vertical scale represents frequencies. The heights of the bars correspond to the frequency values. What does the horizontal scale of a histogram represent? class boundaries What does the vertical scale of a histogram represent? Class frequencies When a histogram has "relative" in it, what does the vertical scale represent? Frequencies in percentages (%'s) What shape is a "normal" distribution? bell shaped What is a frequency polygon? they are like histograms but use line segments connected to points directly above class midpoints values. What is a relative frequency polygon? same polygon chart but changes the frequency to percentages (%'s) on the vertical scale What is an Ogive? Its a frequency polygon but depicts cumulative frequencies in the vertical scale. (* hint *O give more) What is a dotplot? is a graph in which each data value is plotted as a point (or dot) along a scale or values. What is a stem plot (stem and leaf plot)? represent quantitative data by separating value into two parts: the stem (such as leftmost digit) and the leaf (such as most right most digit). (ie. Stem 6 and leaf 0133 stands for values 60,61,63,63) What are bar graphs? uses bars of equal width to show frequencies of categories of qualitative data. What is a multiple bar graph. Has two or more set of bars and is used to compare two or more data sets. What is a pareto chart? A bar graph that with the added stipulation that the bars are arranged in descending order according to frequencies. What is a scatterplot? A scatter diagram that is a plot paired (x,y) with a horizontal x and a vertical y axis. This helps to show relation. What is cluster and gap? a scatter plot of with data consisting or clusters and huge gaps to show relation or lack of it. What is a time series graph? time series data which are quantitative data that have been collected at different points in time. What are some characteristics of bad graphs? non zero axis, pictographs (especially when they dont show relative sizes), volume graphs (especially when differences are exaggerated)