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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conceptual Definition
&
E.g.
Working definition assigned to a term.

E.g. Concept of SES- combination of income and education
Operational Definition and E.g
Definition that spells out precisely how concept will be measured.

E.g. measuring SES – what is the highest level of education you’ve completed
Validity- Define and give E.g.
Does my measuring instrument measure what it claims to measure?

E.G. Radar gun is a valid measure of speed but a wind velocity indicator is not because the volume displaced by a slow moving truck will reg. higher than a fast moving sports car.
Reliability- Define and give E.g.
my measure stable and consistent

E.g. Radar detector is consistent
Measuring Crime
(3) Components
•What offenses to measure

•What units of analysis to use

•What is the research purpose in measuring crime
Measuring Crime
Units of Analysis
•Offender

•Victim

•Offenses

•Incidents
Measuring Crime
What Offenses
•Conceptual and operational

•Deciding what crimes to be measured and narrowing he definition
Ways to Measure Crime

Crimes Known to the police
•(UCR) Uniformed Crime Report

•Incident based police record (SHR) Supplementary Homicide Report, (NIBRS) National Incident Based Reporting System
Ways to Measure Crime

Victims Survey
•(NCVS) National Crime Victim Survey
Ways to Measure Crime

Surveys of Offending
•(NHSDA) National Household Drug Survey

•(MTF) Monitoring the Future

•Drug Surveillance Systems- (ADAM) Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring

(DAWN) Drug Abuse Warning Network
Explain how experimental designs help control different types of validity

History
Selection Bias
Maturation
Testing
Statistical Regression
- Historical events
•Anything occurring outside the experiential group should affect the control group

Maturation- Mature
•As long as the subjects have been randomly assigned to groups, changes in maturation will affect both groups

Testing- Testing and retesting influence behavior
•Both groups are subjected to the same test

Statistical Regression- Extreme Start out Score
•With random assignment, should affect both equally

Selection Bias
•Ruled out by random assignment
3 Component of Classical Experiment
•Independent Variable and Dependent Variable

•Pretesting and Post testing – problems of testing Bias

•Experimental and control groups
Example of a Classical Experiment
• Study of Alcohol abuse among college students and ways to reduce it. To begin, administer a questionnaire to two groups of college students, control group and experimental group, designed to measure their alcohol use in general and binge in particular. Then have the experimental group watch a video on the effects of alcohol. Later, administer a post test to both groups.
Types of Quasi Experimental Designs
•Non equivalent group design- uses matching of subjects to maximize equivalence of groups
Types of Quasi Experimental Designs
Non equivalent design E.g
• Child abuse study- long term effects on delinquency and adult crime. Subjects were matche4d on gender, race, SES, and age at the time of abuse. All were thought likely to confound the relationship between abuse and subsequent offenses.
Conceptual Definition
&
E.g.
Working definition assigned to a term.

E.g. Concept of SES- combination of income and education
Operational Definition and E.g
Definition that spells out precisely how concept will be measured.

E.g. measuring SES – what is the highest level of education you’ve completed
Validity- Define and give E.g.
Does my measuring instrument measure what it claims to measure?

E.G. Radar gun is a valid measure of speed but a wind velocity indicator is not because the volume displaced by a slow moving truck will reg. higher than a fast moving sports car.
Reliability- Define and give E.g.
my measure stable and consistent

E.g. Radar detector is consistent
Measuring Crime
(3) Components
•What offenses to measure

•What units of analysis to use

•What is the research purpose in measuring crime
Measuring Crime
Units of Analysis
•Offender

•Victim

•Offenses

•Incidents
Measuring Crime
What Offenses
•Conceptual and operational

•Deciding what crimes to be measured and narrowing he definition
Ways to Measure Crime

Crimes Known to the police
•(UCR) Uniformed Crime Report

•Incident based police record (SHR) Supplementary Homicide Report, (NIBRS) National Incident Based Reporting System
Ways to Measure Crime

Victims Survey
•(NCVS) National Crime Victim Survey
Ways to Measure Crime

Surveys of Offending
•(NHSDA) National Household Drug Survey

•(MTF) Monitoring the Future

•Drug Surveillance Systems- (ADAM) Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring

(DAWN) Drug Abuse Warning Network
Explain how experimental designs help control different types of validity

History
Selection Bias
Maturation
Testing
Statistical Regression
- Historical events
•Anything occurring outside the experiential group should affect the control group

Maturation- Mature
•As long as the subjects have been randomly assigned to groups, changes in maturation will affect both groups

Testing- Testing and retesting influence behavior
•Both groups are subjected to the same test

Statistical Regression- Extreme Start out Score
•With random assignment, should affect both equally

Selection Bias
•Ruled out by random assignment
3 Component of Classical Experiment
•Independent Variable and Dependent Variable

•Pretesting and Post testing – problems of testing Bias

•Experimental and control groups
Example of a Classical Experiment
• Study of Alcohol abuse among college students and ways to reduce it. To begin, administer a questionnaire to two groups of college students, control group and experimental group, designed to measure their alcohol use in general and binge in particular. Then have the experimental group watch a video on the effects of alcohol. Later, administer a post test to both groups.
Types of Quasi Experimental Designs
•Non equivalent group design- uses matching of subjects to maximize equivalence of groups
Types of Quasi Experimental Designs
Non equivalent design E.g
• Child abuse study- long term effects on delinquency and adult crime. Subjects were matche4d on gender, race, SES, and age at the time of abuse. All were thought likely to confound the relationship between abuse and subsequent offenses.
Conceptual Definition
&
E.g.
Working definition assigned to a term.

E.g. Concept of SES- combination of income and education
Operational Definition and E.g
Definition that spells out precisely how concept will be measured.

E.g. measuring SES – what is the highest level of education you’ve completed
Validity- Define and give E.g.
Does my measuring instrument measure what it claims to measure?

E.G. Radar gun is a valid measure of speed but a wind velocity indicator is not because the volume displaced by a slow moving truck will reg. higher than a fast moving sports car.
Reliability- Define and give E.g.
my measure stable and consistent

E.g. Radar detector is consistent
Measuring Crime
(3) Components
•What offenses to measure

•What units of analysis to use

•What is the research purpose in measuring crime
Measuring Crime
Units of Analysis
•Offender

•Victim

•Offenses

•Incidents
Measuring Crime
What Offenses
•Conceptual and operational

•Deciding what crimes to be measured and narrowing he definition
Ways to Measure Crime

Crimes Known to the police
•(UCR) Uniformed Crime Report

•Incident based police record (SHR) Supplementary Homicide Report, (NIBRS) National Incident Based Reporting System
Ways to Measure Crime

Victims Survey
•(NCVS) National Crime Victim Survey
Ways to Measure Crime

Surveys of Offending
•(NHSDA) National Household Drug Survey

•(MTF) Monitoring the Future

•Drug Surveillance Systems- (ADAM) Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring

(DAWN) Drug Abuse Warning Network
Explain how experimental designs help control different types of validity

History
Selection Bias
Maturation
Testing
Statistical Regression
- Historical events
•Anything occurring outside the experiential group should affect the control group

Maturation- Mature
•As long as the subjects have been randomly assigned to groups, changes in maturation will affect both groups

Testing- Testing and retesting influence behavior
•Both groups are subjected to the same test

Statistical Regression- Extreme Start out Score
•With random assignment, should affect both equally

Selection Bias
•Ruled out by random assignment
3 Component of Classical Experiment
•Independent Variable and Dependent Variable

•Pretesting and Post testing – problems of testing Bias

•Experimental and control groups
Example of a Classical Experiment
• Study of Alcohol abuse among college students and ways to reduce it. To begin, administer a questionnaire to two groups of college students, control group and experimental group, designed to measure their alcohol use in general and binge in particular. Then have the experimental group watch a video on the effects of alcohol. Later, administer a post test to both groups.
Types of Quasi Experimental Designs
•Non equivalent group design- uses matching of subjects to maximize equivalence of groups
Types of Quasi Experimental Designs
Non equivalent design E.g
• Child abuse study- long term effects on delinquency and adult crime. Subjects were matche4d on gender, race, SES, and age at the time of abuse. All were thought likely to confound the relationship between abuse and subsequent offenses.