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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
awareness of ourselves and environment- enables us to reflect and plan
info processing occurs simultaneoulsy- serial and relatively slow perform famiilar tasks automatically- parallel processing
biological rhythms
peiodic physiological fluctuations
annual cycles
geese migrate. bears hibernate, human experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep length, moods-seasonal affect disorder
femal menstrual cycle causes fluctuating moods
twenty four hour cycle
24 hour varying alertness, body temp, growht hormone secretion
ninety minute cycle
how move through various stages of sleep in 90 minute cycles
circadian rhythm
biological clock; regular bodily rhythmsm (temp and wakefulness) occur on 24 hour cycle
-thinking and memory sharpest when people at daily peak in circadian arousal
-transition from sleeping earlierto later begins at about 20
-bright light helps reset biological clocks
suprachiasmatic nucleus
pair of pin sixed clusters of 20000 cells that control the circadian clock- causes brain's pineal gland to decrease in morning or decrease in evening
sleep inducing hormone
chemical inhibits certain neurons, making us tired )caffeine blocks activity) during sleep concentration declines
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. AKA paradoxical sleep b/c muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active
-every 90 minutes pass through a cycle 5 stages
strethces neck muscles and increases heart rate, which increases alertness
alpha waves
relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
stage 1 flase sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
hypnagogic sensations
seeing something in absence of an external visual stimulus
slow wave sleep stages
30 minutes
delta waves
large, slow brain waves associated w/ deep sleep
brains natural opiates
paradoxical sleep
REM sleep body is internallky aroused and externally calm
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep- 10-15% of adults
-alchohol and sleeping pills can aggravate the problem b/c reduce REM sleep
sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attachs. the sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
-relative absence of hypothalamic neural cneter that produces hypocretic
alerting neurotransitter
sleep apnea
sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
-decreased blood oxygen arouses sleeper to awaken and snort air in- deprives of slow wave sleep
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. notable for hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruitites, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
manifest content
according to freud, the rememebered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or haidden, content) previous day's experiences and preoccupations
to satisfy our own wishes
freud's interpretation of dreams book- by fulfilling wishes, a dream provides a psychic safety valve that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings
latent content
freud- underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content) freud believed that dream's latent content fuctions as a safety valve.
to file away memories
dreams are info processing- dreams may help sift, sort, and fix the day's experiences in our pathways
to develop and preserve meural pathways
-physiological function
provide sleeping brain w/ periodic stimulation
to make sense of nueral static
dreams erupt from neural activity that spreads upwards from th brainstem
activiation-synthesis theory
neural acivity is random, and drewams are the brain's attempt to make sense of it.
to reflect cognitive development
dreams are a part of brain maturation and cognitive development
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings duing REM sleep)
a social interaction in which the hypnotist suggests to a subject that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur- altered state of conscoiusness
hypnotic ability
the baility to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it, to entertain fanciful possiblities
age regression
the supposed ability to relive childhood experiences
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, ade during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hynotized; used y some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
a split consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behvaiors to occur simultaneously with others
psychoactive drugs
a chemical that alters perceptions and mood
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
brain nadapts its chemistry to offset the drug effect
the discomfort and distress that follow disconinuing the use of an addictive drug
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrwal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
psychological dependence
psychological needs to use a drug, such a relieve negative emotions
complusive drug craving se
T or F? addictive drugsg quickly corrupt; for example, morphine taken to control pain is powerfully addictive and often leadds to heroin abuse
3 categories of dugs
depressants, stimulans, and hallucinogens- stimulate, inhibit, or mimic the activity of neurotransmitters
drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates (tranquilizers), and opiates that reduce neural activity and show body functions
drugs that depress the activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they supress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
-pupils constrict, breathing slows, user becomes lethargic
drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, esctasy that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes-caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy
powerfully addictive drugs that stimulates the CNS, with speeded-up body functions andassociated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels- speed
-causes irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures, periods of disorientation, violent behavior
causes emotional distrbance, susppicionsness, convulsions, cardiac arrest, repiratory failure, aggression
MDMA- a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin-producing harm to neurons and mood and cognition
-release stored serotonin and block reuptake
-dehydration, severe overheating, increased blood pressure, death, interferes w/ serotonin's control of circadian clock, supresses disease fighing immune system, and impairs memory and other cognitive functions
psychedelic (mind manifesting) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
powerful hallucinogenic drug, aka acid- created by Albert Hofmann
major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations- greater risk anxiety, depression, schizophrenia
dopamine reward circuit
brain pleasure pathway- drugs boost activity
near death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush w/ death 9such as cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
-oxygen deprivation can cause similar experiences
the presumption that mind and body are wo distinct entities that interact
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
attacks of muscke weakness and near paralysis- narcolepsy
REM motor behavior disorder
what dream will do
biological sleep clock
16 hours daytime, 8 hrs sleep
-regulates body temp, hormone levels
-triggered sunlight and dark
-located in brain
sleep wake meter
how much sleep body needs- sleep reduces chemicals and satisfies body's need for sleep
-adenosine (opposite of melatonin)-caffiene block it
body thermometer
falls during 1st part of cycle
rises in early morning hours
-reachest lowest 5 am associated w/ feelings of sleepiness
sleep monitor
electrical impulses from brain and muscles around eyes and limbs form patterns that identify each stage
hormones released druing stress stimulate alertness
-causes cortisol and other hormones rise- sleep happens when levels of cortisol lower
-cortisol lowest when asleep
monday morning blues
biolgical sleep clock delayed by erratic weekend sleep schedule
difficult o fall askeep- only partially fulfilled need
-froggy- weekend sleep schedules make difficult to sleep on sunday nights or wak up monday mornings
stage 1
stage 2
light sleep, heart rate and temp decrease
slow brain waves
stage 4
deepest stage- no movement, relatively hard to be awakened
-night terrors
stage 5
REM- increased brain activity, experience paralysis, nightmares