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### 45 Cards in this Set

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 Alpha Probability of a type 1 error also called significance level Alternative Hypothesis The hypothesis stating what the reseatch is seeking evidence off a statement of inequality it can be written looking for hte difference or chanvce in one direction from the null of in both (<,>,/=) Bar Chart a graphical display used with categorical variables frequencies are shown in vertical bars NOT touching Association relationship between or among variables Bell-shaped used to describe the normal distribution resembles a hill or mound disrtibution that is symmetric & unimodal Beta *the probability of a Type II error *in the linreg it is the slope closely related to power Biased Statistic A sampling method is biased if it tends to produce samples that do not represent the population Bias systematic deviation from the parameter caused by systematically favoring some outcomes over others Bimodal a distribution of data with two clear peaks Binomial Distribution the probability of a binomial random vraiabloe Binomial Random Variable a random variable X which has 4 assumptions Simple RAndom Sample a sample of n individuals that are selected from a population in a way that every possible combination of n individuals is equally likely Influential Outlier an extreme value whose removalwould drastically change the slope of the least-squares regression model line. Binomial Distribution Assumptions 1. A fixed number of trials of a random phenomenon, n 2, that has only two possible outcomes, success and failure 3. Probability of each success is constant for each trial 4. Each trial is independent Bivariate Data consists of two variables, and explanatory and response variable usually quantitative blinding practive of denying knowledge to subjects about which treatment is imposed upon them cuts down biasness blocks subgroups of the experimental units that are spearated by some characteristic before treatments are assigned because they may respond differently to treatments [men and women] Boxplot/Box & Whisker Plot graphical display of the five number summary of a set of data, shows outliers Categorical Variable recorded as labels, names, or other non-numerical outcomes Census a study that observes or attempts to observe, every individual in a population, ALWAYS THE BEST SAMPLE Central Limit Theorm as size n of an srs increases, the shape of the samiloing distibution of X bar tends toward being normall distributed Chance Device a mechanism used to determine random outcomes [dice, coins, spinner, ect.] Cluster Sample a sample in which an sts of heterogenous subgroups of a population is selected Clusters heterogeneous subgroups of a population Coefficient of Determination r^2 percent of variation between the x and y variables that can be explained by its linear relationship Complement (1-A) (1-B) an event that is not occuring Complementary Events two events whose probabilites add up to one Conditional Frequencies relative frequencies for each cell in a two way table relative to one variable Conditional Probability the probability of an event occuring given that another has occurred (A given B) Confidence Intervals give an estimated range that is likely to contain an unknown populated parameter Confidence Level the level of certainty that a population parameter exists in the calculated interval Confounding the situation where the effects of two or more explanatory variables on the response variable can not be separated Confoundung Variable a variable whose effect on the response variable can not be untangled from the effects of the treatment Continuous Random Variables found by measuring [heights] Control Group a baseline group that may be given no treatment, a faux treatment [placebo] or an accepted treatment that is to be compared to another treatement Five Number summary used with median values: minimum value, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum value of data sets Frequency Table a display organizing categorical or numerical data and how often each occurs Median the middle value of a data set, the equal areas point, where 50% of the data are at or below this value & 50% is above or at. Resistant to outliers and works with the five number summary Minimum the smallest number in the data set Residual Observed value minus the expected value of the response variable (y-yhat) Null Hypothesis Hypothesis of no difference, no change, and no association: a statement of equality usually written in the form of: parameter = hypothesized value Normal Distribution a continuous probability distribution tht apreas in many situations, both natural and man made [bell-shaped, area under is always 1] Nonresponse Bias the situation where an individual sleected to be in the sample is unwilling, or unable to provide data Mean of a binomial Random Variable X Mx=np Coerrelation Coefficient r. a measure of the stregnth of a linear relationship [linreg, diagnositics on]