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45 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Alpha

Probability of a type 1 error
also called significance level 

Alternative Hypothesis

The hypothesis stating what the reseatch is seeking evidence off
a statement of inequality it can be written looking for hte difference or chanvce in one direction from the null of in both (<,>,/=) 

Bar Chart

a graphical display used with categorical variables
frequencies are shown in vertical bars NOT touching 

Association

relationship between or among variables


Bellshaped

used to describe the normal distribution
resembles a hill or mound disrtibution that is symmetric & unimodal 

Beta

*the probability of a Type II error
*in the linreg it is the slope closely related to power 

Biased Statistic

A sampling method is biased if it tends to produce samples that do not represent the population


Bias

systematic deviation from the parameter caused by systematically favoring some outcomes over others


Bimodal

a distribution of data with two clear peaks


Binomial Distribution

the probability of a binomial random vraiabloe


Binomial Random Variable

a random variable X which has 4 assumptions


Simple RAndom Sample

a sample of n individuals that are selected from a population in a way that every possible combination of n individuals is equally likely


Influential Outlier

an extreme value whose removalwould drastically change the slope of the leastsquares regression model line.


Binomial Distribution Assumptions

1. A fixed number of trials of a random phenomenon, n
2, that has only two possible outcomes, success and failure 3. Probability of each success is constant for each trial 4. Each trial is independent 

Bivariate Data

consists of two variables, and explanatory and response variable
usually quantitative 

blinding

practive of denying knowledge to subjects about which treatment is imposed upon them cuts down biasness


blocks

subgroups of the experimental units that are spearated by some characteristic before treatments are assigned because they may respond differently to treatments [men and women]


Boxplot/Box & Whisker Plot

graphical display of the five number summary of a set of data, shows outliers


Categorical Variable

recorded as labels, names, or other nonnumerical outcomes


Census

a study that observes or attempts to observe, every individual in a population, ALWAYS THE BEST SAMPLE


Central Limit Theorm

as size n of an srs increases, the shape of the samiloing distibution of X bar tends toward being normall distributed


Chance Device

a mechanism used to determine random outcomes [dice, coins, spinner, ect.]


Cluster Sample

a sample in which an sts of heterogenous subgroups of a population is selected


Clusters

heterogeneous subgroups of a population


Coefficient of Determination

r^2 percent of variation between the x and y variables that can be explained by its linear relationship


Complement

(1A) (1B) an event that is not occuring


Complementary Events

two events whose probabilites add up to one


Conditional Frequencies

relative frequencies for each cell in a two way table relative to one variable


Conditional Probability

the probability of an event occuring given that another has occurred (A given B)


Confidence Intervals

give an estimated range that is likely to contain an unknown populated parameter


Confidence Level

the level of certainty that a population parameter exists in the calculated interval


Confounding

the situation where the effects of two or more explanatory variables on the response variable can not be separated


Confoundung Variable

a variable whose effect on the response variable can not be untangled from the effects of the treatment


Continuous Random Variables

found by measuring [heights]


Control Group

a baseline group that may be given no treatment, a faux treatment [placebo] or an accepted treatment that is to be compared to another treatement


Five Number summary

used with median values: minimum value, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum value of data sets


Frequency Table

a display organizing categorical or numerical data and how often each occurs


Median

the middle value of a data set, the equal areas point, where 50% of the data are at or below this value & 50% is above or at. Resistant to outliers and works with the five number summary


Minimum

the smallest number in the data set


Residual

Observed value minus the expected value of the response variable (yyhat)


Null Hypothesis

Hypothesis of no difference, no change, and no association: a statement of equality usually written in the form of: parameter = hypothesized value


Normal Distribution

a continuous probability distribution tht apreas in many situations, both natural and man made [bellshaped, area under is always 1]


Nonresponse Bias

the situation where an individual sleected to be in the sample is unwilling, or unable to provide data


Mean of a binomial Random Variable X

Mx=np


Coerrelation Coefficient

r. a measure of the stregnth of a linear relationship [linreg, diagnositics on]
