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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
observational study
the researcher observes what is happening or what has happened in the past and tries to draw conclusions based on these observations.
experimental study
the researcher manipulates one of the variables and tries to determine how the manipulation influences other variables.
explanatory variable
also known as the independent variable, in an experimental study is the one that is being manipulated by the researcher.
outcome variable
also called the dependent variable. A variable in correlation and regression analysis that cannot be controlled or manipulated.
treatment group
a group in an experimental study that has recieved some type of treatment.
control group
a group in an experimental study that is not given any special treatment.
hawthorne effect
when subjects knew they were participating in an experiment actually changed their behavior in ways that affected the results of the study.
confounding variable
one that influences the dependent variable but cannot be separated from independent variable.
suspect samples
researchers use very small samples to obtained information when a large sample size is better to do, and the selection of the subjects in the sample is important so there is not any built-in bias.
Ambiguous Averages
mean, median, mode, and midrange
changing the subject
statistical distortion can occur when different values are used to represent the same data.
detached statistics
no comparison is made. For example "Brand A telenol works 2 times faster." Faster than what?
implied connections
"Eating cherrios for breakfast may help reduce your cholestrol." The words MAY HELP signifies that there is no guarantee that eating cherrios for breakfast will for sure reduce your cholestrol.
misleading graphs
If graphs are drawn inappropriately, they can misrepresent the data and lead the reader to false connections.
faulty survey questions
when analyzing results of a survey using questionnaires, you should be sure that the questions are properly written since the way questions are phrased can often influence the way people answer them.
the sum of the vaules, divided by the total number of values. symbol ( )
the midpoint of the data array. symbol (MD)
the value that occurs most often in a data set
the sum of the lowest and highest values in the data set,divided by 2. symbol (MR)
the highest value minus the lowest value. symbol (R)