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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data.
the characteristic or attribute that can assume different values.
are the values that variables can assume.
random variable
are variables whose values are determined by chance.
descriptive statistics
consist of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data.
inferential statistics
consist of generalizing from samples to population, performing estimations and hypothesis testing, determining relationships amoung variable, and making predictions.
consist of all subjects (humans or otherwise) that are being studied.
a group of subjects selected from the population
hypothesis testing
a decision-making process for evaluating claims(seeing if true or not) about a population, based on info obtained from samples.
qualitative variable
variable that can be placed into distinct categories, according to some characteristic or attribute.
quantitative variable
numerical and can be ordered or ranked
discrete variable
assume vaules that can be counted
ex. the number of children in your family
continuous variable
can assume all vaules between any two specific vaules. They are obtained by measuring.
nominal level of measurement
classifies data into mutually exclusive(non-overlapping) exhausting categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data.
Ex: gender (male or female), Religious affilation (Christian, Catholic)
ordinal level of measurement
classifies data into categories that can be ranked; however precise differences between the ranks do not exist.
Ex: fisrt place, second place, third placed
interval level of measurement
ranks data, and precise differences between the units of measure do exist; however there is no meaningful zero.
Ex: IQ test scores, SAT scores
ratio level of measurement
possesses all characteristics of interval measurement, and there exist a true zero. In addition, true ratios exist when the same variable is measured on two different members of the population
Ex: height, weight, age, salary.
systematic sample
a sample obtained by numbering each element in the population and then selecting every kth # from the population to be included in the sample.
stratified sample
dividing the population into groups (called strata) according to some characteristic that is important to the study, THEN sampling from group.
cluster sample
subjects are selected by using an intact group that is a representative for the population.