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### 51 Cards in this Set

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 numbers and/or category labels that have been collected (measured) but have not yet been processed in any way raw data the entire group of objects or individuals under study, about which information is wanted population an individual object or person in the population unit The units are often called this if the population consists of people subjects a part of the population that is actually used to get information sample a characteristic of interest to be measured for each unit in the sample variable A collection of observations on one or more variables is called a? data set raw data that consists of group or category names qualitative variables If the category names do not necessarily have a logical ordering Examples: eye color, country of residence. nominal variables If the category names do have a logical ordering Examples: highest educational degree earned, shirt size (S, M, L, XL) ordinal variables raw data that consists of numerical values taken on each individual, have numerical values that are measurements (length, weight, and so on) or counts (of how many) quantitative variables variable is one for which you can count the number of possible values Example: the number of correct answers on a multiple-choice test discrete variable can take on any value within a given interval. Example: the amount of water poured into a 50-ml glass container. continuous In general, the value of the ___________ variable for an individual is thought to partially explain the value of the ________ variable for that individual. explanatory; response provides the possible values that a variable can take on and how often these possible values occur distribution displays the distribution of a qualitative variable by dividing a circle into wedges corresponding to the percentage of items in that category pie chart displays the distribution of a qualitative variable by listing the categories of the variable along one axis and drawing a bar over each category with a height (or length) equal to the percentage of items in that category bar graph Two types of Qualitative Variables? 1. Nominal 2. Ordinal Two Types of Quantitative Variables? 1. Discrete 2. Continuous How many equally spaced intervals are good for a histogram? between 6 to 15 count frequencies proportion relative frequencies displays a dot for each observation along a number line dotplot contains all but the last of the displayed digits of a number stem the last of the displayed digits of a number leaf Two things to look for in any graph of data? Overall pattern and for striking deviations from that pattern Three things that describe the overall pattern? Shape, center, and spread an individual value that falls outside the overall pattern outlier if the right and left sides of the histogram are approximately mirror images of each other symmetric if the right side of the histogram (containing the half of the observations with the larger values) extends much farther out than the left side skewed to the right if the left side of the histogram extends much farther out than the right side skewed to the left Normal shape of distribution? Symmetric, bell-shaped, unimodal plots each observation against the time at which it was measured time plot What does a time plot help determine? Whether a distribution is changing over time average value in a data set mean midpoint of a distribution median Because the mean cannot resist the influence of extreme observations, we say that it is? not a resistant measure of center The median is this to extreme observations? resistant The mean and median of a symmetric distribution are? exactly the same The simplest useful numerical description of a distribution consists of? both a measure of center and a measure of spread high value - low value range upper quartile - lower quartile interquartile range (IQR) median of data values that are below the median lower quartile median of data values that are above the median upper quartile the median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the left of the location of the overall median lower quartile Q1 the median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the right of the location of the overall median upper quartile Q3 consists of the smallest observation, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the largest observation, written in order from smallest to largest five-number summary a number that has k% of the data values at or below it and (100-k)% of the data values at or above it k^th percentile In a dataplot, points represented by asterisks are considered to be? outliers Q3 - Q1 interquartile range Are fences sketched on a boxplot? No