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51 Cards in this Set
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numbers and/or category labels that have been collected (measured) but have not yet been processed in any way

raw data

the entire group of objects or individuals under study, about which information is wanted

population

an individual object or person in the population

unit

The units are often called this if the population consists of people

subjects

a part of the population that is actually used to get information

sample

a characteristic of interest to be measured for each unit in the sample

variable

A collection of observations on one or more variables is called a?

data set

raw data that consists of group or category names

qualitative variables

If the category names do not necessarily have a logical ordering
Examples: eye color, country of residence. 
nominal variables

If the category names do have a logical ordering
Examples: highest educational degree earned, shirt size (S, M, L, XL) 
ordinal variables

raw data that consists of numerical values taken on each individual, have numerical values that are measurements (length, weight, and so on) or counts (of how many)

quantitative variables

variable is one for which you can count the number of possible values
Example: the number of correct answers on a multiplechoice test 
discrete

variable can take on any value within a given interval.
Example: the amount of water poured into a 50ml glass container. 
continuous

In general, the value of the ___________ variable for an individual is thought to partially explain the value of the ________ variable for that individual.

explanatory; response

provides the possible values that a variable can take on and how often these possible values occur

distribution

displays the distribution of a qualitative variable by dividing a circle into wedges corresponding to
the percentage of items in that category 
pie chart

displays the distribution of a qualitative variable by listing the categories of the variable along one
axis and drawing a bar over each category with a height (or length) equal to the percentage of items in that category 
bar graph

Two types of Qualitative Variables?

1. Nominal
2. Ordinal 
Two Types of Quantitative Variables?

1. Discrete
2. Continuous 
How many equally spaced intervals are good for a histogram?

between 6 to 15

count

frequencies

proportion

relative frequencies

displays a dot for each observation along a number line

dotplot

contains all but the last of the displayed digits of a number

stem

the last of the displayed digits of a number

leaf

Two things to look for in any graph of data?

Overall pattern and for striking deviations from that pattern

Three things that describe the overall pattern?

Shape, center, and spread

an individual value that falls outside the overall pattern

outlier

if the right and left sides of the histogram are approximately mirror images of each other

symmetric

if the right side of the histogram (containing the half of the observations with the larger values) extends much farther out than the left side

skewed to the right

if the left side of the histogram extends much farther out than the right side

skewed to the left

Normal shape of distribution?

Symmetric, bellshaped, unimodal

plots each observation against the time at which it was measured

time plot

What does a time plot help determine?

Whether a distribution is changing over time

average value in a data set

mean

midpoint of a distribution

median

Because the mean cannot resist the influence of extreme observations, we say that it is?

not a resistant measure of center

The median is this to extreme observations?

resistant

The mean and median of a symmetric distribution are?

exactly the same

The simplest useful numerical description of a distribution consists of?

both a measure of center and a measure of spread

high value  low value

range

upper quartile  lower quartile

interquartile range (IQR)

median of data values that are below the median

lower quartile

median of data values that are above the median

upper quartile

the median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the left of the location of the overall median

lower quartile Q1

the median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the right of the location of the overall median

upper quartile Q3

consists of the smallest observation, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the largest observation, written in order from smallest to largest

fivenumber summary

a number that has k% of the data values at or below it and (100k)% of the data values at or above it

k^th percentile

In a dataplot, points represented by asterisks are considered to be?

outliers

Q3  Q1

interquartile range

Are fences sketched on a boxplot?

No
