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51 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
numbers and/or category labels that have been collected (measured) but have not yet been processed in any way

raw data


the entire group of objects or individuals under study, about which information is wanted

population


an individual object or person in the population

unit


The units are often called this if the population consists of people

subjects


a part of the population that is actually used to get information

sample


a characteristic of interest to be measured for each unit in the sample

variable


A collection of observations on one or more variables is called a?

data set


raw data that consists of group or category names

qualitative variables


If the category names do not necessarily have a logical ordering
Examples: eye color, country of residence. 
nominal variables


If the category names do have a logical ordering
Examples: highest educational degree earned, shirt size (S, M, L, XL) 
ordinal variables


raw data that consists of numerical values taken on each individual, have numerical values that are measurements (length, weight, and so on) or counts (of how many)

quantitative variables


variable is one for which you can count the number of possible values
Example: the number of correct answers on a multiplechoice test 
discrete


variable can take on any value within a given interval.
Example: the amount of water poured into a 50ml glass container. 
continuous


In general, the value of the ___________ variable for an individual is thought to partially explain the value of the ________ variable for that individual.

explanatory; response


provides the possible values that a variable can take on and how often these possible values occur

distribution


displays the distribution of a qualitative variable by dividing a circle into wedges corresponding to
the percentage of items in that category 
pie chart


displays the distribution of a qualitative variable by listing the categories of the variable along one
axis and drawing a bar over each category with a height (or length) equal to the percentage of items in that category 
bar graph


Two types of Qualitative Variables?

1. Nominal
2. Ordinal 

Two Types of Quantitative Variables?

1. Discrete
2. Continuous 

How many equally spaced intervals are good for a histogram?

between 6 to 15


count

frequencies


proportion

relative frequencies


displays a dot for each observation along a number line

dotplot


contains all but the last of the displayed digits of a number

stem


the last of the displayed digits of a number

leaf


Two things to look for in any graph of data?

Overall pattern and for striking deviations from that pattern


Three things that describe the overall pattern?

Shape, center, and spread


an individual value that falls outside the overall pattern

outlier


if the right and left sides of the histogram are approximately mirror images of each other

symmetric


if the right side of the histogram (containing the half of the observations with the larger values) extends much farther out than the left side

skewed to the right


if the left side of the histogram extends much farther out than the right side

skewed to the left


Normal shape of distribution?

Symmetric, bellshaped, unimodal


plots each observation against the time at which it was measured

time plot


What does a time plot help determine?

Whether a distribution is changing over time


average value in a data set

mean


midpoint of a distribution

median


Because the mean cannot resist the influence of extreme observations, we say that it is?

not a resistant measure of center


The median is this to extreme observations?

resistant


The mean and median of a symmetric distribution are?

exactly the same


The simplest useful numerical description of a distribution consists of?

both a measure of center and a measure of spread


high value  low value

range


upper quartile  lower quartile

interquartile range (IQR)


median of data values that are below the median

lower quartile


median of data values that are above the median

upper quartile


the median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the left of the location of the overall median

lower quartile Q1


the median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the right of the location of the overall median

upper quartile Q3


consists of the smallest observation, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the largest observation, written in order from smallest to largest

fivenumber summary


a number that has k% of the data values at or below it and (100k)% of the data values at or above it

k^th percentile


In a dataplot, points represented by asterisks are considered to be?

outliers


Q3  Q1

interquartile range


Are fences sketched on a boxplot?

No
