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51 Cards in this Set

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numbers and/or category labels that have been collected (measured) but have not yet been processed in any way
raw data
the entire group of objects or individuals under study, about which information is wanted
population
an individual object or person in the population
unit
The units are often called this if the population consists of people
subjects
a part of the population that is actually used to get information
sample
a characteristic of interest to be measured for each unit in the sample
variable
A collection of observations on one or more variables is called a?
data set
raw data that consists of group or category names
qualitative variables
If the category names do not necessarily have a logical ordering

Examples: eye color, country of residence.
nominal variables
If the category names do have a logical ordering

Examples: highest educational degree earned, shirt size (S, M, L, XL)
ordinal variables
raw data that consists of numerical values taken on each individual, have numerical values that are measurements (length, weight, and so on) or counts (of how many)
quantitative variables
variable is one for which you can count the number of possible values

Example: the number of correct answers on a multiple-choice test
discrete
variable can take on any value within a given interval.

Example: the amount of water poured into a 50-ml glass container.
continuous
In general, the value of the ___________ variable for an individual is thought to partially explain the value of the ________ variable for that individual.
explanatory; response
provides the possible values that a variable can take on and how often these possible values occur
distribution
displays the distribution of a qualitative variable by dividing a circle into wedges corresponding to
the percentage of items in that category
pie chart
displays the distribution of a qualitative variable by listing the categories of the variable along one
axis and drawing a bar over each category with a height (or length) equal to the percentage of items in that category
bar graph
Two types of Qualitative Variables?
1. Nominal
2. Ordinal
Two Types of Quantitative Variables?
1. Discrete
2. Continuous
How many equally spaced intervals are good for a histogram?
between 6 to 15
count
frequencies
proportion
relative frequencies
displays a dot for each observation along a number line
dotplot
contains all but the last of the displayed digits of a number
stem
the last of the displayed digits of a number
leaf
Two things to look for in any graph of data?
Overall pattern and for striking deviations from that pattern
Three things that describe the overall pattern?
Shape, center, and spread
an individual value that falls outside the overall pattern
outlier
if the right and left sides of the histogram are approximately mirror images of each other
symmetric
if the right side of the histogram (containing the half of the observations with the larger values) extends much farther out than the left side
skewed to the right
if the left side of the histogram extends much farther out than the right side
skewed to the left
Normal shape of distribution?
Symmetric, bell-shaped, unimodal
plots each observation against the time at which it was measured
time plot
What does a time plot help determine?
Whether a distribution is changing over time
average value in a data set
mean
midpoint of a distribution
median
Because the mean cannot resist the influence of extreme observations, we say that it is?
not a resistant measure of center
The median is this to extreme observations?
resistant
The mean and median of a symmetric distribution are?
exactly the same
The simplest useful numerical description of a distribution consists of?
both a measure of center and a measure of spread
high value - low value
range
upper quartile - lower quartile
interquartile range (IQR)
median of data values that are below the median
lower quartile
median of data values that are above the median
upper quartile
the median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the left of the location of the overall median
lower quartile Q1
the median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the right of the location of the overall median
upper quartile Q3
consists of the smallest observation, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the largest observation, written in order from smallest to largest
five-number summary
a number that has k% of the data values at or below it and (100-k)% of the data values at or above it
k^th percentile
In a dataplot, points represented by asterisks are considered to be?
outliers
Q3 - Q1
interquartile range
Are fences sketched on a boxplot?
No