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318 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Using graph 1,
(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined) 
postive


Using graph 2,
(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined) (2)explain the correlation btwn x and y (postive or negative correlated) 
(1)postive (2)postively correlated


Using graph 3,
(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined) 
negative


Using graph 4,
(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined) (2)What is the correlation btwn x and y? (postive or negative 
(1)negative (2)x and y are negatively associated


Using graph 5,
(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined) (2)how are the x and y correlated to the line? 
(1)0 (2)the correlation btwn the points is zero


Using graph 6,
(1)what is the slope? (2)how are x and y correlated to the line? 
(1)undefined (2)undefined


y is called the (1)

dependent variable


NAME
this is called the dependent variable 
y


x is called the (1)

independent variable


What is the point slope formula?

yy1=m(xx1)


NAME
this is called the independent variable 
x


What is regression?

is a stastical tool that uses the relation btwn two or more quanitative variables so that one variable can be predicted from the other or find the assocation btwn the two varaibles


NAME
is a stastical tool that uses the relation btwn two or more quanitative varaibles so that one variable can be predicted from the other or find the assocation btwn varaibles x and y 
regression


What is a response variable measure?

measusres the outcome of a certain study


NAME
this measures the outcome of a certain study 
response variable


What is an explantory variable?

explains or may cause changes in the response variable


NAME
this varaible explains or may cause changes in the response variable 
explantory variable


When are two variables assocaited?

if some some values of one of the variable occur more often w some values of the other varaible


Two variables are (1)if some values of one of the varaible occur more often w some values of the other variable

associated


y is the (1) or the (2)variable

(1)dependent (2) reponse


NAME
this is called the dependent variable 
y


NAME
this is called the response variable 
y


Which varaible is the response varaible?

y


NAME
this is the independent variable 
x


NAME
this is the predictor variable 
x


Which variable is the predictor variable?

x


the x is the (1) or (2)variable

(1)independent (2)predictor


What equation is used to represent the simple linear regression model?

y=a+bx+E


What is the equation y=a+bx+E used for?

simple linear regression model


y=a+bx+E
(1)what does a represent? (2)What does b represent? (3)what does E represent? 
(1)y intercept
(2)slope of the line (3)the random error component 

y=a+bx+E
(1)what is the deterministic part of the equation? (2)what is the E part of the equation? 
(1)a+bx
(2)E 

What is the mean of E?

0


What does E stand for?

the random variable


How is E distrubed?

normally


What are (2)assumptions you can make about the E?

(1)the random varible E has a mean of zero and a constant varaince σ^2 and are distrubed normally (2)for possible pair of observations yi and yj, the associated random errors E1 and E2 are indepedent


What does correlation?

is a measure of the strength of a linear relationship btwn the response variable and the predictor variable


NAME
is a measure of the strength of a linear relationship btwn the response varaible and the predictor variable 
correlation


r^2 is called the (1)

cofficeient of determination


NAME
this is called the cofficient of determination 
r^2


y is the weight of babies and x= is the age of the baby and
y=10x=8 (1)what is the predication equation? 
y=10x+8


the predication equation can also be called the (1)

least squares of line regression


the (1)can also be called the least sqaures of line regression

the prediction equation


Using graph 7,
(1)what is the aprox of r? 
r=1


Using graph 8,
(1)what is the aprox of r? 
r=.8 or about 1


How do you tell if r is 1 or 1?

all points are on the line


When r is 1 or 1?

when all points on the line


When is r negative?

when the slope is negative


When is r postive?

when the slope is postive


How do you find the prediction equation using your calculator?

go to stat calc, select #8 or LinReg(ax+b)(x,y)


Using data in L6,
predict the number of manatees that will be killed if x=682. 
plug in x=682 to prediction equation (y=.125x+41.43)
y=126.68 manatees would be killed 

What does TSS refer to?

refers to the total sum of the sqaures of the variation


NAME
this refers to the total sum of the sqaures of the variation 
TSS


What does SSR refer to?

the variation explained by the model


NAME
this refers to the variation explained by the model 
SSR


What does SSE refer to?

the varation due to error


NAME
this refers to the variation due to error 
SSE


If (1)then this means that it is a good model and most of the points are on the line

if SSR is larger compared to SSE


If SSR is larger compared to SSE then this means that (1)

it is a good model and most of the points are on the line


if (1)then this means that it is abd model and that most of the points are not on the line

SSE is larger than SSR


If SSE is larger than SSR then this means that (1)

it is a bad model and most of the points are not on the line


What does r measure?

the strength and direction of the line


NAME
this measaures the strength and direction of the line 
r


What does r^2 measure?

measures how much of the data can be explained by the line


NAME
this measures how much of the data can be explained by the line 
r^2


How do you find the residuals?

^
yy 

Using L6,
(1)find the residual for y=47 for manatees 
(719, 47)for y=.1249x41.4304
^ yy = 47(41.4+1.25(719)) residual is 1.475 

The best fit of the line is has to be a (1)

linear model


Using graph 9,
(1)is the graph a good or bad model? 
yes


Using graph 10,
(1)is the graph a good or bad model? 
no because it is not a linear model


Using graph 11,
(1)is the graph a good or bad model? 
no


What is the lurking varaible?

is a variable that affects the response varaible but it is not included in the model


NAME
this is a variable that affects the response varaible but it is not included in the model 
lurking variable


What is the goal of regression? (2)

(1)prediction of response variable using the predictor varaible (2)correlation of variables


NAME
this has two goals: prediction of response variable using the predictor variable and correlation of variables 
regression


What is a multiple linear regression?

has a 1 response variable and many prediction variables


Using graph 12,
(1)what are A,B, and C? 
influenical observations


How do u tell what points are infleunical observations?

are points on the x axis that are far away from the model and are outliners


NAME
these are points on the x axis that are far away from the model and are outliners 
infleunical observations


Are all influenical observations outliners?

yes


Are all outliners infleunical observations?

no


T or F
all outliners are infleuntial observations 
false


T or F
all infleuntial observations are outliners 
true


What are influenical observations?

are observations whose absence dramatically changes the model


NAME
are observations whose absence dramatically changes the model 
infleunical observations


Using graph 13,
what is the approximate of r? 
r=o


Using graph 14,
(1)what is the aproximate of r? 
r =1


Using graph 15,
(1)what is the aproximate of r? 
r=1


T or F
correlation means causation 
false


Does correlation mean causation?

no


If x or y are highly correlated or there is highy correlation, this means that (1)

you cannot say that x cuased y unless u do experiements


if x and y are (1), you cannot say that x caused y unless u do experiments

highly correlated


If x and y are (1)this means that x caused y

are negativly correlated


If x and y are negativly correlated this means that (1)

x caused y


What is multivariate multiple linear regression?

has many response varaibles and many predictable variables


NAME
has many response variables and many predictables variables 
multivariate multiple linear regression


How do you find the residuals?

^
yy 

What does SRS stand for?

Simple Random Sampling


What is SRS?

refers to when each of the members of the pop has a equal change of being selected sample


NAME
refers to when each of the members of the pop has a equal change of being selected sample 
SRS


When can be SRS be biased?

if the pop you sampled from is not homogenous


What is stratified Random sampling?

refers to when we divide the pop into the strata and from each stratum we take SRS, this way each group is represented


NAME
this refers to when we divide the pop into the strata and from each stratum we take SRS, this way each group is represented 
stratifed random sampling


If the pop is homogenous do u need stratifed random sampling?

no


What is systematic sampling?

is when you create a system to select samples that represents the pop


NAME
this refers to when you create a system to select samples that represents the pop 
systematic sampling


NAME
a ex of this type of sampling is when you select every 4th person in the row to sample 
systematic sampling


NAME
a ex of this type of sampling is when the port authority wants to check crates for drugs. they samples 1,000 crates out of 300,00. furthermore, each crate contains 200 dolls. they also inspected the dolls in 50 out of the 1,000 crates 
multistage sampling


What is cluster sampling?

refers to when you sample a cluster or group of people


NAME
this refers to when you sample a cluster or group 
cluster sampling


The population consists of 20 males and 80 females and the total is 100 people.
Draw a sampling frame 
See graph 16


The population consists of 20 males and 80 females and the total is 100 people.
(1)Draw a sampling frame (2)How many females and males would needed to be sampled so that the sampling was proportional? 
(1)see graph 16
(2)ratio of the sampling fram is 80:20 or 4:1 Therefore, females =4/5*100=80 males=1/5*100=20 

What are the differ types of biased samples? (6)

(1)convenience sampling (2)call in sampling (3)undercoverage sample (4)nonresponse (5)response bias (6)sampling varability


Give a ex of convenience sampling?

if you want to know how many people like shoping so you survey only people shopping at a mall


NAME
a example of this is if you want to know how many people like shoping so you survey only people who are shoping at a mall 
convenience sampling


NAME
these include conveience sampling, call in sampling, undercoverage sample, nonresponse, response bias, and sampling varability 
biased samples


What is the undercoverage sampling?

refers to when one pop is undercovered


NAME
this refers to when one pop is undercovered 
undercoverage sampling


What is call in sampling?

refers to sampling over the phone


NAME
this refers to sampling data over the phone 
sampling


What is nonresponse bias?

is when you have a lack of response from the people you are sampling


NAME
this refers to when you have a lack of response from the people you are sampling 
nonresponse bias


What is sample variaiblity?

refers to samples that are not homogenous but of differ groups


NAME
this refers to samples that are not homoegenous but of different groups 
sample variablity


What are the (2) differ types of stastical study?

(1)survey study (2)experimental study


NAME
these include survey study and experimental study 
stastical study


Most medial studies are (1)

survey studies


What is a survey study?

refers to when the researcher does not impose any conditions to affect the response or outcome


NAME
this refers to when the researcher does not impose any conditions to affect the response or outcome 
survey study


What is a experiment?

is a controled task that yeilds observations


NAME
this is a controled task that yeilds observations 
experiment


T or F
regression is a experiment 
fasle


Can a regression be a experiment?

no


In order to do a experiment well, you must(1)

eliminate all the outcomes that may affect what you are testing


NAME
if you want to do this well you must eliminate all the outcomes that may affect what you are testing 
experiment


What is a experimental study?

refers to when the reseracher imposes experimental conidtions to alter the response


NAME
this refers to when the reseracher imposes experimental conditions to alter the response 
experimental study


NAME
this is used to study cause and effect 
experimental study


Experimental study can be used to study (1)

cause and effect


T or F
a survey can be used to study cause and effect 
false


Can a survey be used to stuyd a cause and effect?

no


What is the experimental treatment?

is anything you do to alter the response or outcome


NAME
this is the experiment conidtion that imposes the smallest experiment observation or experimental unit 
experimental treatments


NAME
this refers to anything you do to alter the response or outcome 
experimental treatment


Mr. Tek gives you a take home test to students to see how much they know about stats
(1)what is the treatment? (2)what is the experimental unit? (3)what is the response? 
(1)the treatment is the pretest
(2)Experimental unit is the students (3)The response is the grades 

What are (3) properties of experimental design?

(1)local control
(2)randomization (3)replication 

NAME
this has three properties: local control, randomization, and replication 
experimental design


Give a example of local control?

see the sampling frame on graph 17


Using graph 17,
(1)it is a example of what? 
local control


What does randomization do?

it reduces the passible systematic errors
therefore, making a more precise prediction 

NAME
this reduces the possible systematic errors, Therefore, making a more prescise prediction 
randomization


Response bias can also be called the (1)

sampling error


(1)can be also called the sampling error

response bias


What is replication?

is when you apply treatments to differ experiemntal units (replicate) and expect similar response


NAME
this is when you apply treatments to differ experimental units (replicate) and expect similar response 
replication


What is psudo design?

is a design that design that fails one of the following properties: local control, randomization, and replication


NAME
this is a design that fails one of the following properties: local control, randomization, and replication 
psudo design


The y variable is the (1)or (2)variable

depedent or response varaible


NAME
this is the predicatable varaible 
x


NAME
this is the response varaible 
x


The x varaible is the (1) or (2)variable

indepedent or predictor


What is a convenicence sample?

the sample consists of indivudals who are convenitently avaiable


NAME
this sample consists of indivudals who are convenitently located 
conveinvece sample


What is a strata?

refers to when groups are divided into several subgroups


NAME
this refers to when groups are divided up into several subgroups 
strata


What are factors?

are explantory variables w certain number of levels


NAME
are explantory varaibles w a certain number of levels 
factors


What are treatment combinations?

refers to a combinoation of 2 or more factors of different levels


NAME
this refers to a combination of 2 or more factors of different levels 
treatment combinations


Using graph 19,
(1)Id the factors (2)what are the levels? (3)How many treatment combinations are there? 
(1)customers and how to cook hamburgers
(2)customers have 3 levels the cooking type has 3 levels (3)3^2=9 

A=is the event that the plane 1hits a target
B=is the event that the plane 2 hits the same target P(A)=.8 and P(B)=.7 What is the probalilty that plan 1 or plane 2 hits the target? 
P(A or B)= P(A)+P(B)P(AΩB)
therefore= .8+.7(.8.7)=.9 90% 

When find the probaility, how do u add?

P(A or B)=P(A)+P(B)P(AΩB)


What does disjointed mean?

that A and B are seperate


If two things are disjointed what is P(AΩB)?

0


If two things are disjointed, what is P(AΩB)?

0


If two events are (1), then P(AΩB) equals zero

disjointed


Use graph 16,
the two objects A and B are (1) 
disjointed


Use graph 17,
NOTE: the jar contains seperate starbursts (r= red, y=yellow, and g=green) (1)What is the probalilty that you would get a red or yellow? 
P(R)+P(Y)=
20/60 + 10/60= .5 

What does a indepdent event mean?

it means that the happening of one event does not effect another event


NAME
this means that the happening of one event does not effect another event 
indepdent event


You toss a coin twice. are the 2 event indepedent?

yes


If A&B are indepdent events then P(A and B)= (1)

P(a)*P(B)


If A&B are (1)events then P(A and B)=P(a)*P(B)

indepdent


A=the event that Lind will get an A
B=the event that Joe will get an A NOTE:A&B are independent (1)If P(A)=.9 and P(B)=.8, what is the probality both Linda and Joe get an A? 
P(A and B)=P(AΩB)=P(A)*P(B)=.72=
72% 

You toss a coin twice.
(1)what is the probaility you will get two heads? 
P(H and H)=
1/4*1/4 

If A1, A2...An are indepdent events then P(A1ΩA2...ΩAn)equals (1)

P(A1)*P(A2)...P(An)


A jumbojet has 4 independently working engines(E1, E2, E3, and E4).
A= the event that the engine 1 will fail B= the event that the E2 will fail C= is the event that E3 will fail D= is the event that E4 will fail P(A)=.0008, P(B)=.003, P(C)=.01, and P(D)=.0004 (1)If the jumbo jet is flying somewhere, what is the probaility that all the egines fail and the plane crashes? 
P(A,B,C,and D)=
.0008*.003*.01*.004= 9.6*10^12 

Supose a shipment is coming in. The shipment consists of 9 items. 27% are defective.
(1)what is the probaility that at least one is not defective? 
P(1 item ≤ x >9 items)
solution= 1P^n 1(27)^9= .99 

The classroom has .6 males and .4 females. You meet 3 people in the classroom.
(1)what is the probaility you meet all females? (2)What is the probaility thaat at least one of the three people you meet is male? 
(1)P(F and F and F)=.4^3=
.064% 

The classroom has .6 males and .4 females. You meet 3 people in the classroom.
(1)What is the probaility thaat at least one of the three people you meet is male? 
1P(A)^n=
1(.6)^3=78.4% 

What does CRD stand for?

Completely randomized design


What is CRD?

is when you randomly asssign treatments to experimental units


NAME
this is when you assign treatments to experimental units 
CRD


If experimental units are not (1)then they are bias

homogenous


If experimental units are not homgenous then they are (1)

bias


What does CRBD stand for?

completely randomized block design


What is CRBD?

is when you block the experimental units based on similarities


NAME
this is when you block the experimental units based on similarities 
CRBD


What is blocking?

refers to seperating certain groups


NAME
this refers to seperating certain groups 
blocking


WHen is a test statisctially significant?

if the test is so affective that it is very unlikely that the affect is due to chance


NAME
this means tha the test is so affective that it is very unlikely that the affect is due to chance 
stastically significant


What are subjects?

refers to humans in a experiment


NAME
this refers to humans in a experiment 
subjects


What is single blind experiment?

refers to when the subjects do not know what they are getting. however, the researchers knows what he or she is administering to the subject


NAME
this refers to when the subjects do not know what they are getting. however, the researchers knows what he or she is administering to the subject 
single blind experiment


What is a double blind experiment?

refers to when niether the subjects nor the administer know what the treatments the subject is getting or what they are administering


NAME
this refers to when neither the subjects nor the administer know what the treatments the subject is getting or what they are administering 
double blind experiment


What is the control?

is a standard treatment w which others are compared


NAME
this is the treatment w which others are compared 
control


What is the placebo?

is a treatment with neutral or no effects


NAME
this refers to a treatment w neutral or no effects 
placebo


What is the placebo effects?

is the tendency of a subject to show a postive response or some response to a placebo treatment


NAME
is the tendency of a subject to show a postive reponse or some response to a placebo treatment 
placebo effect


T or F
in stats we always have error bc samples are always part of the pop 
true


What do stats use probaility for?

to find errors in the pop samples


What is the probalilty?

is the study of phenomena


NAME
is the study of phenomena 
probaility


What does confounding mean?

refers to when you can not tell waht response varaibles are


NAME
this refers to when you cannot tell what the response varaibles 
confounding


What is the sample space?

refers to all possible outcomes of an experiment


NAME
this refers to all possible outcomes of an experiment 
sample space


You toss 2 coins,
(1)what is the P that you will get both heads? 
P(H and H) bc are dependent
2^2=4 P(H and H)=1/4 

You toss 3 coins,
How many possible outcomes are there? 
2^3= 8
8 possible outcomes 

You toss 1 die and 3 coins
(1)how many possible outcomes are there? (2)Find P for 6 on the die and three heads? 
(1)6*2^3
(2)P(6,HHH)= 3/8 

A newly married couple wants to have 3 children, what is the P she will have all girls?
(1)Assume P(girls)=P(boys) (2)she does not have triplets 
outcomes= 2^3= 8 possible outcomes
P(G,G, and G)=1/8+1/8+1/8=3/8 

Supose there are 30 questions and a person did not study. Each questions has 2 answers. What is the P she or he will get all the questions right?

Sample frame=2^30
1/2^30 

What an event?

is a subset of a sample space


NAME
this is subset of a sample space 
event


What are (2) types of events?

(1)sure event (2)impossible event


What is a sure event?

is a event that must happen


NAME
is a event that must happen 
sure event


What is a impossible event?

is a event that cannot happen


NAME
this is a event that cannot happen 
impossible event


What is P of a sure event?

100%


What is the P of an impossible event?

0


NAME
the probality of this event is 100% 
sure event


NAME
the P of this event is 0 
a impossible event


The proability of any event is btwn (1) and (2)

0 and 1


What is PE stand for?

is the probability of any event


What does S stand for?

sample space


What is the P(S)?

1


What is the P(S)?

1


What does emperical mean?

refers to something pratical


NAME
this refers to something pratical 
emperical


How do you find P(E)?

the number of times the event occurs/ the number of times the experiment is done


Toss a coin 1,000 times.
Heads=450 (1)What is the P(E)? 
P(H)= 450/1000= 9/20


n=30 students.
There are 18 females and 12 males (1)what is the P of females? (2)what is the P of males? 
P(F)=18/30= 60%
(2)P(M)= 40% 

Using graph 22,
(1)what is the probaility that a person's religion is Catholic and Republican? 
P(C and R)=12,000/75,000= 16%


Use graph 22,
(1)what is the P that a person will vote democrat given that his or her religion is prostant? 
total=24,000 +34,000= 58,000
11,0000/24,0000= 46% 

If you see given, what does indicate?

means that the sample space changes and does not equal the grand total


If you see the word (1)it indicates that the sample space changes and does not equal the grand total

given


Using graph 18,
(1)what is the P that a persons religion is judism and that they belong to the indepdent party? 
P(I given I)= 2,000/10,000=20%


P that you will pass the test is 95%, what is the P you will not pass the test?

5%


What symbol represents the compliment of event such as A?

A^c


What does A^c represent?

the compliment of event A


P(A)+(A^c)=(1)

0


A=is a event that I will pass the test.
P(A)=.90 (1)what is the P that I will not pass the test? 
A^c=.10


What does the symbol Ω refer to?

the intersection point


If A and B are two independent events then P(A or B)=

P(AΩB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AΩB)


If A and B are two (1)events then P(AΩB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AΩB)

indepedent


Supose you were to collect data for the pair of given varaibles in order to form a scatterplot. Determine if each variable is explantory, a response or whether it could be both.
(1)cloudy days (2)rainy days 
(1)cloudy days= explantory variable
(2)rainy days= response 

Using graph 23,
(1)Determine whether the scatterplot shows little or noassociation, a negative assocation, a linear assoaction, a modeerately strong assocation, or a very strong assocation (NOTE multiple assocations are possible) 
(1)negative and linear assoaction


Use graph 24,
What is the correlation btwn salary and average wins? (5) 
there is a slight correlation btwn salary and average wins
(2)this means that the more salary increases the more the average wins increases. (3)furhtermore, this is because the slope is postive and r is .81 (4)the graph of the resiudals shows that the most of the points are on the line (5)lastly r^2 shows that 65% of the games won by the chicago team and the average salary can be exaplined by the line 

Managers rate employees according to the job performance and attiude. The results for several randomly selected employees are given below.
Performance= 59, 63, 65, 69, 58, 77, 76, 69, 70, and 74 Attiude= 72, 67, 78, 82, 75, 87, 92, 83, 87, and 78 (1)what is the equation of the regression line? 
y=11.7+1.02x


Can on predict a student's score on the midterm exam in stast course from the number of hours the student spents studying for the exam. To explore this, the teacher of the course asks the students how many hours they spend studying for the exam and then makes a scatter plot of the time students spend studying and thier scores on the exam. In making the scatterplot, the scatterplot the teacher should (1)

plot the time spent studying for the exam on the horizontal axis


A reseracher wishes to determine whether the rate of water flow over an experimental soil bed can be used to predict the amount of soil washed away. The reseracher measures the amount of soil washed away for various flow rates and from these data calculates the least sqaures of regression line to be amount of eroded soil = .4 +1.3*flow rate

postive but we cannot say what the exact rate is


The fraction of the variation in the values of a response y that is explained by the least squares of regression of y on x is (1)

the square of the least squares regression line


Using graph 12,
(1)What does the scatterplot suggest? (2) 
there is a postive assocation btwn height and vold (2)there is an outliner in the plot


I compute the least sqaures regression line for a set of data and find the slope is 91.2. I remove a point from the data, recompute the least squares regression line and now find that the slope is 13.7. The point i removed would be considered a (1)

influential variable


A study of elementary school children ages 6 to 11, finds a high postive correlation btwn shoe size x and score y on a test reading comprehension. the observed correlation is mostly due to (1)

the effect of the lurking variable such as age


What is conditioned P?

refers to if A and B are 2 events then P(A given B) = P(A/B)
or (2)P(B given A)= P(B)/P(B) 

real estate ads suggest that 64% of homes for sales have garages, 21% have swimming pools, and 17% have both. Find P for each of the following.
a)a pool or garage? b)neither a pool nor garage? c)a pool but no garage? 
a)P(P or G)= P(A)+P(B)P(A∩B)
=P(.21)+P(.64).17= .68 B)1p(G or P)= 1.68=.32 c) 21%.17%=.04 

The P that an Adult American man has blood pressure and/or high cholestral are shown in the table.
Using graph (NOTE ADD CHART ON PAGE 300 #9) (1)What is the P that a man will have both conditions? (2)What isthe P that a man w high blood pressure if it's known that he has high cholestral? (3)What is the P that a man has high blood pressure if its known that he has high cholestral? 
First step add totals to contengicny chart
(1)P(C and P)=.11 (2)P(P)=.27 (3).11/.27=.407 

What are some of the names for the following?
y=a+bx? (3) 
(1)The regression model
(2)the least squares regression model (3)the predication equation 

What are the differ names for r? (2)

(1)the correlation coffeciant
(2)correlation 

What is the purpose of r? (2)

(1)detect the strength of the linear relationship btwn x and y (2)show the direction


What does r^2 represent?
ex if it r^2=80% for x and y 
says 80% of the variation can be explained by x and y


What does r^2 represent?
ex if r^2 is 90% 
it says that 90% of the varation can be explained by x and y


if two events are disjointed meaning they dont have anything in common, (events A and B).
(1)what is the P of A and B? 
0


if two events are disjointed meaning they dont have anything in common, (events A and B).
(1)what is the P of A and B? 
0


if a problem says predict the direction, form, and scatter what do they want as an answer?

(1)direction postive or negative
(2)if the relationship is linear (3)Scatter= are the points following a pattern or alll over the place 

The (1)variable can also be called the predictor variable

explantory


The explantory variable can also be called the (1)

predictor variable


What is the predictor variable?

x


X is the (1)variable

predictor


What is the response variable?

y


What is the response variable?

y


Y is the (1)variable

response


What is the explantory variable?

x


What is the predictor variable?

x


Can you correlate categorical variable?

no


T or F
you can correlate categorical variables 
false


Suspose you are collecting data on Apples. You find there wieght in grams and there weight in ounces
(1)what would you expect to see in the scatter plot? 
(1)direction
(2)form (2)scatter 

Supose you collect data for the following.
Find the scaterplot for the variables below (1)Apples: circumference (Inches) and weight (ounces) 
circumferencein ounces= the predictor
(2)weight= response (3)Scatterplot=postive, linear, and somewhat scattered 

Supose you collect data for the following.
Find the scaterplot for the variables below (1)college freshman: shoe size and GPA 
(1)Shoe size=predictor
(2)GPA=response (3)Scatterplot=no direction, null, and very scattered 

Supose you collect the data for the following variables. Find the scatter plot for each below
(1)Gasoline: number of miles you drove since following up gallons remaining in your trunk 
(1)Miles driven=predictor
(2)gallons remaining=response (3)scatterplot= negative, linear, and some scatter 

Supose you collect data for the following.
Find the scaterplot for the variables below (1)When climbing a mountain: altiude and temperature 
(1)Alitude= explantory
(2)temperature=response (may be both ways) (3)scatterplot=negative, possibly linear, and very scattered 

Supose you collect data for the following.
Find the scaterplot for the variables below (1)For each week:Ice cream and air conditioner sales 
(1)ice cream sales= predictor
(2)AC sales = response (may be both ways) (3)scatterplot= postive, linear, and some scatter 

What are residuals?

are the differ btwn observed and predicted values


NAME
this is the differ btwn observed and predicted values 
residuals


What is extrapolation?

is to predict values of x far from the ones used to find the linear equation


NAME
is to predict the values of x far from the ones used for find hte linear equations 
extrpolation


What are (2) types of observational studies?

(1)retrospective study
(2)preospective study 

NAME
this is a study in which no data manipulation of factors has occured 
observational study


What is a retrospective study?

is a observational study in which the subjects are selected and their previous conditions or behaviors are determined


NAME
is an observational study in which the subjects are selected and their previous conditions or behvariors are determined 
retrospective study


NAME
this includes two types:retrospective and prospective study 
observational study


What is an prospective study?

an observational study in which subjects are followed to observe future outcomes


NAME
this an observational study in which subjects are followed to observer future outcomes 
prospective study


What is randomized block design?

refers to when randomization occurs only w/in blocks


NAME
this refers to when randomization occurs only w/in blocks 
randomized block design


(1)Determine if it is an Obsevational or experimental study
(2)A (IF AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY) (a)id if it a retrospective or preospective study (b)id subjects and how they were selected (2)B (IF IS AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ONLY) (a)id subjects (b)id the factors and the number of levels for each (c)the number of treatments (d)id the response variable measured (e)the design(completely randmized, blocked or matchted) (f)whether it was blind or not (g)the number of treatments STUDY= After menopause many women take supplemental estrogen. There is some concern that if these women also drink alcholol their estrogen levels may rise to high. 24 volunteers, 12 who took took supplemental estrogen and 12 who did not, where randomly divided into 2 groups: alcholics and non alchololic groups. An hour later every one's estrogen was checked. Only those receving supplemental estrogen who dranl alcholol showed an increase in thier estrogen 
(1)Experiment
(2) (a)postmenosapel women (b)alcholol2 levelsestrogen suplements2 levels (c)4 (d)blocked (e)not blind 

(1)Determine if it is an Obsevational or experimental study
(2)A (IF AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY) (a)id if it a retrospective or preospective study (b)id subjects and how they were selected (2)B (IF IS AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ONLY) (a)id subjects (b)id the factors and the number of levels for each (c)the number of treatments (d)id the response variable measured (e)the design(completely randmized, blocked or matchted) (f)whether it was blind or not (g)the number of treatments STUDY= an examination of the medical records of more than 360,000 Swedish men showed that those w were overweight or had high blood pressure had a higher risk of kidney cancer 
(1)observational study
(2)(a)preospective (b)men and wome w moderately high blood pressure and normal blood pressure and unkown selection processs 

(1)Determine if it is an Obsevational or experimental study
(2)A (IF AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY) (a)id if it a retrospective or preospective study (b)id subjects and how they were selected (2)B (IF IS AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ONLY) (a)id subjects (b)id the factors and the number of levels for each (c)the number of treatments (d)id the response variable measured (e)the design(completely randmized, blocked or matchted) (f)whether it was blind or not (g)the number of treatments STUDY= in a test of roughly 200 men and women, those w moderately high blood pressure did worse on tests of memory and reaction time than those w normal blood pressure 
(1)Observational study
(2)(a)men retrosepctive (b)Swedish men and unkown selection process 

(1)Determine if it is an Obsevational or experimental study
(2)A (IF AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY) (a)id if it a retrospective or preospective study (b)id subjects and how they were selected (2)B (IF IS AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ONLY) (a)id subjects (b)id the factors and the number of levels for each (c)the number of treatments (d)id the response variable measured (e)the design(completely randmized, blocked or matchted) (f)whether it was blind or not (g)the number of treatments STUDY= over a 4 month period, amoung 30 people w bipolar disorder, patients who were given a high dose of omega 3 fats from fish oil improved more than those given the placebo 
(1)experiment
(2)(a)postemenopausal women (b)alcholol 2 levels; blocking variableestrogen supplements (c)2 treatments*2 blocking levels (d)increase in estrogen levels (e)blocked (f)non blind 

A check of dorm rooms on a large college campus revealed that 28% had refrigerators, 52% HAD TVs and 21% had both had a refrigerator. What's the probaility that a randomly selected dorm room has the following?
(1)a TV but no refrigerator (2)a TV or refrigerator but not both? (3)neither a TV nor a fridge? 
(a).31 (b).48 (c).31


You draw a card at random from a standard deck of cards of 52 cards. Find each of the following conditional probailites
(1)the card is heart: given that it is red (2)the card is red:given that is a heart (3)the card is an ace: given that it is red (4)the card is queen: given that it is a face card 
(a).50 (b)1.00 (c).077 (d).333


Supose you are to form a scatterplot by collecting data for the given pair variables. Determine the likely direction, form, and scatter
(1)high grade point average of students and studying consistently 
(1)direction=postive
(2)linear (3)some scatter 