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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what family ruled before chandragupta?
the nanda family
what empire did they rule?
how did chandragupta maurya take over?
he fathered an army, killed the nanda king, and calimed the throne
in what year?
321 BC
what empire did he begin?
mauryan empire
what lands did chandragupta seize?
all the land from magadha to the indus
why did chandragupta fight seleucus?
he had inherited control of the eastern part of alexander the greats empire
who won?
what did he get out of it?
some of the territory
by 303, describe the mauryan empire
it stretched more than 2000 miles and united north india politically for the first time
chandraguptas advier who wrote a rulers handbook called the Arthasastra
what kind of government did chandragupta create?
highly bureacratic
how did chandragupta divide the empire?
into four provinces, each headed by a royal prince, and each was divided intolocal districts, whose officials assessed taxes and enforced the law
ambassador sent to Chandraguptas capital by Seleucus to keep peace with theindian emperor
Chandraguptas grandson who brought the Mauryan empire to greatest heights
how did asoka at first run the empire?
waging war to expand
what did he do to do this?
led a campaign against the state of kalinga and had many of them slaughtered
how did asoka feel after this?
he felt bad abot it
what did he dO?
he studied buddhism and decideed to rule by buddhas teaching on nonviolnce
how did asoka promise to treat his subjects?
fairly and humanely
religious toleration
acceptance of people who held different beliefs
-asoka urged this
what did asoka do good for his empire?
built extensive roads to make trael easier, with stops along the way
when did the empire begin to break up
after asokas death
what happenedto the empire after asokas death?
regional kings challeneged the imperial gov't. tthe kingdoms regained their indepedence
what dynasty arose after the death of asoka
andhra dynasty
what was in indias southern tip after asokas death?
home to 3 kingdoms who had never been conquered by the mauryans
who lived there?
the Tamil people
what happened in these 3 kingdoms often?
they were often at war w/ each other
chandra gupta
started indians second empire, the gupta empire
the gupta empire
indias second empire
what title did chadra gupta I take?
"great king of kings"
what did chandra gupta I's empire include?
magadga and the area just to the north of it, with the central region of the ganges river as a power base
samudra gupta
chandra gupta I's son who became king
what did samudra do?
loved poetry and music but also expanded the empire w/ 40 years of war and conquest
what era is the first period about which historians have much info concerning daily life in india?
gupta era
family headed by the eldest male;
the mother was the head of the family
who had a patriacrchal society?
most indian families
who was matriarchal?
some tamil groups
chandra gupta II
3rd gupta emperor
who did he defeat and what did this result in?
he defeated the Shakas, an ememy kingdom to the west, and added their west coast territory to his empire
how did they help?
this allowed them to take part in the trade between indian and the mediterranean
through what peaceful means did II strengthen his empire?
negotiated diplomatic and marriage alliances--arranged for his daughter to marry a king who controlled the western deccan
what achievements were there during the rule of the first 3 guptas?
achievements in art, literature, religious thought, science, and math
what happened after the death of chandra gupta II?
innvaders called hunas threatened northern india, and the gupta empire broke into small seperate kingdoms
this was the name given to the first indian dynasty, which began about 321 BC
this person was the first emperor of the indian dynasty
chandragupta maurya
this emperor gave up his throne, converted to jainism, and eneventually starved to death while fasting
chandragupta maurya
what were indias 2 main faiths?
hinduism and buddhism
a complex polytheistic religion that evolved from a blend of aryan and pre-aryan beliegs
stresses that each indivudal can reach a state of peace called nirvana
potential buddhas who could choose to give up nirvana and work to save humanity through good work and sacrifice
form of buddhism that accepted new doctines and velieved salvation was available to all
sect of buddhism that held to the buddhas stricter, original teachings
how did hinduism change?
although they still worshipped hundreds of gods, a trend towards monotheism was growing
-many people began to believe there was only one divine force in the universe
3 most important gods
1. brahma-creator of the world
2. vishnu-preserver of the world
3. shiva-destroyer of the world
indian writer who wrote a famous play called Shakuntala
in what did the indians advance in?
atronomy, math, medicine
how did they advance in astronomy?
used stars to help them figure their position at sea
used a calendar based on the moon
had a 7-day wee divided into hours
proved the earth was round by observing a lunar eclipse
math advancement
moderl numerals, zero, and the decimal system
calculated the value of pi to four decmimal places
calculated the length of a solar year almost correctly
compiled medical guides
performed surgery
Silk Roads
caravan routes that crisscrossed central asia
why was it called silk roads?
traders used them to bring silk from china to western asia and on to rome
how did indians profit on the silk roads?
they acted as middle-men between business transactions
what other way did the indians trade?
sea trade
who are some people indian traded with?
africa, arabia, china,
how did increased trade leead to the rise of banking?
bankers were willing to lend money to merchants and charge them interest on loans
how did indian culture spread through trade?
a number of indian merchants went to live abroad and brought indian culture with them. it affected art, architecture, and dance throughout southeast asia. they also spread their religions
what happened in china after shi huangdis death?
peasants rebelled, rival kinds raised armies and fought over territory
during the civil war, what two pwoerful leaders emerged?
Xiang Yu and Liu Bang
who won?
Liu Bang
Han Dynasty
began by Liu Bang
how long did it rule china?
for more than 400 years
what two periods is the han dynasty divided into?
Former Han and Later Han
what policy of shi huangdis did Liu Bang establish to destroy the rival king's power
establishing a centralized government
centralized government
a central authority controls the running of a state
hundreds of local officials of provinces reporting to liu bang
what policy did liu bang depart from of shi huangidis?
how did he do this?
lowered taxes and softened harsh punishments
Empress Lu
ruled when liu bang died because she was the mother of his young son; outlived this son and named one infant and then another as emperor
what happened aftter Lu died?
people who remained loyal to liu bangs family took power and executed the empress' relatives
how did woman try to get rule?
1. competed for emperor's notice
2. made freinds w/ influential people in court
Liu bangs great grandson
why is he called the martial emperor
he adopted the policy of expanding the chinese empire through war
Xiongnu people
moads and enemies of wudi and raided the chinese people
how did wudi stop them?
put troops at the border where they came from
where did wudi colonize?
areas northeast, now manchuria and korea
and soth, now vietnam
how far had the empire expanded by the end of wudis reign?
nearly to the bounds of present-day china
what kind of gov't did the chinese have?
complex bureacracy
who owed a months worth of public works in china every yar
civil service jobs
government jobs that civilians obtain by taking exams
under the han dynasty, what did they test applicants on?
what did wudi do to get job applicants to study confucius' work?
set up a schoool
who began the civil service system?
what did the chinese invent?
1. paper
2. collar harness
3. perfected plow
4. wheelbarrow
5. watermills to grind grain
how did paper help?
1. books were more readily available
2. recordkeeping in govt improved
what did confuscian scholars and ordinary people cconsuder the most important and honrable occupation when the population swelled to 60 million?
the process of making the conquered people part of chinese culture
how did the gov't accomplish assimilation?
gov't sent chinese farmers to settle newly colonized areas, and encouraged them to intermarry w/ locals
-set up schools to train locals and then appointed them to gov't posts
Sima Qian
known as grand historian for his wpork in compliing a history of china from the ancient dynasties to wudi
Ban Biao
started writing THE HISTORY OF THE FORMER HAN DYNASTY and had his children finish it
how did the custom of dividing land among one's heirs in china help the rich?
most poor farmers couldnt afford to buy more land, and so each geneartion got smaller and smaller plots. with such small land, they had trouble raising enough food to sell or even to feed their family. because of this small farmers went into debt and had to borrow money from the large landowners who charged very high interest rates. if the farmer couldnt pay back the debt, the landowner took possession of the farmer's land. they also didnt have to pay taxes, so as their land got bigger, the gov't had less land to tax. they began to press harder to collect money from the small farmers, and this created a gap between the rich and poor
what happened during the time of economic change?
political instability grew-inexperienced emperors, chaos
wang mang
decided a strong ruler was needed--overthrew the than and toook the imperial title for himself
what did this end?
the first half of the han dynasty, the former han
what did wang mang do to try to bring the country under control?
-minted new money to relieve treasury's shortage
-set up public ganeries to gelp feed chinas poor
how was wang mang helping the poor?
-took large landholdings from the rich and planned to redistribute the land to the farmers who lost their land
what happened to wang mang?
their was a great flood
peasants revolted and wealthy revolted and killed jim
who took rule next?
a member of the old imperial family
what did this begin
the second half of the Han dynasty, Later Han