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132 Cards in this Set

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what was the empire called that constantine made constantinople the capital of?
the new rome
justinian
high-ranking byazntine nobleman who became emperor of the eastern empire
procopius
court hjistorian who wrote a gossip book called the secret history about justinian
what did justinian do to unite the west and east
became head of the whole roman empire-east and west
belisarius
justinians best general who he sent to recover north arica from the vanls and rome from the ostrogoths
what lands did justinians armies win?
nearly all of italy and parts of spain
how did the byzantine emperors rule?
with absolute power-had control of church and state-appointed bishops
what language did most byzantines speak?
greek
what christian church did most byzantines belong to?
the eastern branch
justinian code
a body of civil law written by a panel of 10 legal experts and pased on roman laws
what were the four works of justinians code?
1. The Code-contained nearly 5000 roman laws
2. Digest-quoted and summarized opinions of romes greatest legal thinkers about law
3. Institues-textbook that told law students how to use the laws
4. Novellae (New Laws)
what were some of the areas the justinian code regulated
mariiage, slavery, property, inheritance, women's rights, and crimes
Hagia Sohpia
church that was destroyed in constaninople that justinian rebuilt
what building project did justinain take on
rebuilt constantinoples fortifications
what does hagia sohpia mean in greek
"holy wisdom"
WHAT DID THETY DO NEXT?
emperor heraclus reorganized the empire along military lines. provinces became themes, or military districts, each run by a general whoo reported directly to the emperor
who did constantinople fall to and when?
ottoman turks in 1453
saint basil
wrote rules for the life of monks
sant john chrysostom
BISHOP of constantinople and patriarch
patriarrch
leading bishop of the east
what emperor banned the use of icons?
emperor leo III
why did he do this?
he thought the use of icons amounted to idol worship
icons
religious images used by eastern chrstians to aid their devotions
iconocleasts
people in the army who broke into chruches to destroy images
how did people react
the people rioted and the clergy rebelled
how did the pope in the west become involved?
supported the use of icons
what did one pope do to one byzantine enmperor bc of the icons being banned?
ordered the excommunication of the enpror
how were icons restored to eastern churches?
an order from an empress named theodora restored icons to eastern churhces
what caused the eastern and western churches to be permantely divided?
the pope and the patriarch excommunicated each other in a dispute over religious doctrine
schism
permantely split of the roman catholic church in the west and the orthodox church in the east
differences btween language of 2 churches
roman catholic church in the west-services conducted in latin
eastern orthodoz-conduccted in greek or local langauges
differences in heads
roman caatholic-pope has authority over all other bishops
eastern orthodoz-patriarch and other bishops head church as a group
difference in authority of heads
RC-pope has authoity over all kings and emperor
EO-emperor has authority over patriarchs and other bishops
heads marry differences
RC-priests cannot marry
EO-priests can marry
divorce differences
RC-no divorce
EO-divorce allowed under certain conditions
saint methodius and saint cyril
eastern missionaries who worked among slavs and invented an alphabet for them
cyrillic alphabet
alphabet for the slavs
slavs
thhe people from the forests north of the black sea
what ideas did the slavs absorb?
greek byzantine ideas
where did russian culture come from?
the blending of slavic and greek traditions
what are the 3 great rivers in russia
dnieper, don, and volga
varangians/rus
bands of adventurers, most likely vikings, whocame from the north and settled among the slavs
what kind of political unity did the slavs have at first
none
novgorod
russias first important city founded by viking chief rurik
chief rurik
viking chief who founded novgorod and according to legends was invited by the slavs to be their king
the primary chronicle
a history of russia written by monks in the early 1100s
Oleg
nobleman from novgorod who moved south to kiev
kiev
city on the dnieper river
why was kiev a good place to move?
vikings could sail by river and sea to constantinople to trade
whaty did kiev grow into
a principality
principality
small state ruled by a prince
what happened as kiev grew into a principlality?
viking nobles intermarried w/ their slavic subjects and adopted their culture
boyars
nobles in the kiev society
who was the first member of kievan nobility to convert to christianity
princess olga
did he son acccept christianity?
no
vladimir
olgas grandson who sent teams oout to observe the major relgions of the times -convined vladimir to convert to byzantine chrsitianity and make alll his subjects convert too
what church did they convert to
orthodoz
what does the rise of kiev mark he appearance of?>
russias first important unified territory
how did vladmir lead the way to establshing kievs power?
expanded the state west into poland and north almost to the baltic sea
fought off ttroublesome nomads from the steppes to the south
Yaroslav the wise
vladmirs son who
a) married off his daughters and sisters to kings and princes of western europe-helped establish trading alliances
b) created a legal code that mostly dealt w/ crimes against property
3rd thing he did
built the first library in kiev
when ddid the decline of the kievan state start
when yaroslav died
what error did he make
he divided his realm among his sons instead of following the custom of passing on the throne to the eldest son-sons tore the state apart fighting for territories-system of dividing continued and causes more problems
mongols
ferocious group of horsemen from central assia who came to russia
genghis khan
mongol leader and one of thje most feared warriors of all tme
possible reaons mongols came to russia
1. economic or military pressures
2. lured by wealth of cities to the west
why did they have a reputation for ruthless brutality
savage killing and bruning
what did the mongolsdo to viev?
attacked and demolished it
batu khan
genghis kan who led the mongols in destorying kiev
official name of the mongol empiree "
"khanate of the golden horde"
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN
khanate-kingdom
golden-royal color of mongols
horde-camp
what did the mongols tolerate
allll religions
how did church leaders explain mongol occupation
punishment for peoples sins
whatgained importance in the church at this time for people toescape their painful political relaties
icons
what two things did the mongols declare from the russians
1/ slavish obedience
2. massive amounts of tribute
who collected tribute in order t keep their titles
local nobles
alexander nevsky
novgorods prince and military hero who advised his fellow princes to cooperate with the mongols
daniel nevsky
his son
what did the mongols cut russia off from
western europe
what new center of power rose at this time
moscow
how did the mongols help to unite russia?
kievan russia had been a collection of small independent principalities but mongols looked upon russia as their unified empire
what was the head of the mongol empire called
khan
what was moscowlocated near
the three riveres: dnieper, volga, and don
Prince Ivan I
prince of moscow who earned gratitude of the mongols by helping to crush a russian revolt against mongol rule
what did this get him
mongols appointed fim tax collector of all the savic lands they conquered
what title did they give him?
"great prince"
what did ivan convince the patriarch of kiev to do?
to move to moscow
Ivan III
married the niece of the last byzantine emperor and began calllling himself czar-rebellled against mongols and made final break with them
how did he rebel against the mongols
refused to pay their tribute
was about to fight w/ them but neither side wanted to but this marked russias liberation from mongol rule
czar
russian version of caesar
durko
people living west of the chinese borders that might have been the turks.-nomads that herded animals
what did the abbassids do when they first noticed the military skills of the ruks?
began buying turkish children to raise as slaves, train as soldiers, and eploy as bodyguads
mamelukes
turkish military slaves that became a powerful force in the abbasid empire
why was this a bad time for foreign influence for the abbassids?
they kept losing significant amounts of territory
what happened to the abbassid eimpire in 945?
persian armies moved into baghdad and put an end to he caliphs political power
what power did the caliph continue
continuted as a religious leader of islam
a large number of what people moved inot the abbassid empir around 970
seljuks
seljuks
one of the first of these migrating turkish groups
what religion had the seljuks converted to?
the sunni branch of islam
what did the seljuks do in 1055
attacked and captured baghdad from the persians
battle of manzikert
turks crushed the byzantines
toghril beg
founder of the seljuk dynasty who chose teh persian city of isfahan as the capital of his kingdom
how else did the turks favor persians
appointed them gov't mofficials
vizier
turkish prime minister
Nizam al-mulk
a persian who served as vizier under malik shag
malik shah
one of te most famous of seljuk sultans
what did turks get from the persians
-looked to them for cultural and relgious gudiance in islam
-adopted to persian language
shahs
name for seljuk rulers bc of the persian word for king
Jalaludin rumi
islamic poet
isfahan
city malik shah beautififed with mosques
what caused the almost complete disappearnce of the arabic language from persia
the turks political and ultural preference for the persians
who was the last of the strong seljuk leaders
malik shah
what happened after he died?
no capable shad could replace him so the seljuk empire disintegrated into a lose collection of minor kingdoms
the crusades
the series of military campaigns where the west launched a counterattack against the turks
Pope urban II
launced the first crusafe in 1095
first crusade
christians from western europe drove turks out of anatolia and recovered jerusalem where they establsihed a latin christian kingdom that lasted about a century
saladin
kurdish captian from a fragment of the seljuk empire who recovered jerusalem from the muslims
what eventually happened to end this?
saladin and his western opponent king richard I of england signed a truce that gave jerusalem to the muslims but granted western pilgrims access to christian holy placces
what new threat to tturkish power came next?
the mongol army led y genghis khan
what did genghis's grandson hulagu do?
toook baghdad and killed tens of thousands of people
who shaped the biggest land empire in history?
genghis khan and his successors
why did their vast empire crumble in just a few generations?
they knew little about adminterstering their territory
what term means "nobles"
boyars
which people attacked and demolished kiev?
the mongols
which group of invaders proably founded novgorod and later sttled in kiev?
vikings
who createed a legal code for kiev that emphasized and protected property and commerce?
yaroslav the wise
which russian prince and military hero was declared a saint of the russian orthodox church for his heroics and his protection of the church>
alexander nevsky
the abbassids were rulers of what empire?
muslim empire
3 things the mamelukes were
1. originially slaves
2. trained as soldiers
3. a powerful force in the abbassid empire
in 945, when the perisans conquered bahgdad, the powr to govern was assigned to the
vizier
seljuk culture was influenced most by what culutre
arabic culture
malik shad was the last strong, effection
seljuk leader