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100 Cards in this Set

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the arabian peninsula is the crossroads between what 3 continents?
africa, europe, and asia
nomads of the Arab desert organized into tribes and groups called clans
bedouins
bedouin ideals
courage and loyalty to family, warrior skills
where did trade routes go to?
connected arabia to the major ocean and land trade routes-ran from extreme south of the peninsula to the byzantine and sassanid empires to the north
what did the arabs transport on the trade routes?
spices and incense from yemen and other products
also carried information and ideas from the world outside arabia
what were 2 cities that were prosperous trading centers on the caravan routes?
petra and palmyra
how was mecca important on the trade route?
caravans stopped in mecca during holy months to worship at a holy shrine in the city.
ka'aba
a simple house of worship in mecca--associated w/ abraham, believer in one god
allah
arabic god
hanifs
people who believed in one god
where was muhammad born?
mecca
how old was muhammad when he heard the voice?
40
what does muslim mean?
"one who has submitted"
muslim
people who agreed to the basic principle that there is only one god
what does islam mean
"submission to the will of allah"
khadijah
muhammads wife
when did muhammad leave mecca
622
what was his migration called
Hijrah
where did he migrate to?
yahthrib
what else is this city called?
medina
what does medina mean?
"city of the prophet"
what did muhammad do in medina?
became political leader and eventually military leader in hostilities between mecca and medina
why did muhammad return to mecca
its power declined
what did he do there?
took oer the city and destroyed the idols in the ka'aba
umma
muslim religious community
qur'an
the holy book of the muslims
what do muslims believe happens when you die?
each person will stand before allah and enter either heaven
what are the five pillars
five duties that all luslims have to carry out to demonstrate their duty to the will of God
name five pillars
1. faith
2. prayer
3. alms
4. fasting
5. pilgrimage
faith
have to tesity simple statement of faith that says there is no god but allah and muhammad is the messenger of allah
prayer
muslims face towards mecca and pray five times a day
alms
all muslims must give money for the poor
fasting
muslims must fast between dawn and sunset in the holy month of ramadan
pilgrimage
all muslims must perform hajj, pilgrimage to mecca, at least once in a lifetime
mosque
islamic house of worship
hajj
pilgrimage to mecca muslims must make at least once in their lifetime
when do muslims pray?
friday afternoons
what cant muslims eat or drink?
meat, wine, or any other intoxicating beverage
ulama
scholar class concerned with learning and law
angel of gabriel
according to islamic belief, muhammad expressed his will through this angel who revealed it the muhammad as the qur'an
what does mosque mean
"place of kneeling to god"
what language is the qur'an in?
arabic
sunna
muhammads example; the best model for proper living
shari'a
system of laq that regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of muslims
qur'an is to muslims as
___ is to jews
____ is to christians
1. torah and gospels
name the similarities between jews christians and muslim?
1. qur'an-word of God revealed to muslims
torah and gospels-word of god revealed to moses and new testament writers
2. all religions believe in heaven and hell and a day of judgment
3. all htree trace ancestry to abraham
4. all three are monotheistic
who became the first caliph
abu-bakr
what does caliph mean?
"successor" or "deputy"
who were the next three caliphs after abu-bakr
umar, uthman, and ali
what did they have in common?
they all had known muhammad and supported his mission. they used the qur'an and muhammads actions as a guide
what were they knwn as
the "rightly guided" caliphs
what was their rule callled
a caliphate
what did umar conquer?
syria, lower egypt (part of byzanteen empire), parts of persian empire
how did abu bakr reunify the arabs?
on the basis of loyalty to islam
what was the inspired conquest?
atlantic ocean to borders of india
what were the reasons for success of conquest?
1. weakness of persian and byzantine empires
2. welcomed as relief from harsh rule
3. efficient fighting methods
how were conquered people treated?
special tax on non-muslims
monotheists tolerated
what triggered the civil war?
murder of uthman
when did the caliph electeive system die?
when ali was assassinated
what family came to power next?
umayyads
what kind of succession did they set up?
hereditary
where did they move the capiral to?
damascus
how did this help?
made controlling conquered territories easier
shi'a
group who believed that the caliph needed to be a relative of the prophet
what does shi'a mean?
"party" of Ali
sunni
those who did not outwardly resist the rule of the umayyads
what does sunni mean?
followers of muhammads example
sufi
reacted to luxurious life of umayyads by pursuing a life of poverty and devotion to spiritual path
who took control after the umayyad caliphate downfall?
abbasids
berbers
muslims from north africa whoconquered by spain
tariq
berbers powerful military leader
at what battle were the berbers halted?
battle of tours
what muslim state in southern spain did they form?
al-Andalus
where did the abbassids move the capital?
to baghdad
why was it good?
it was located on a key trade route
what kind of gov. did they create?
a stron bureaucracy
what is one independent muslim state that sraing when abbassid leaders failed to keep completely political control of the territory?
fatmid dynasty
what was it named after
muhammads daughter fatima
what were the two major sea-trading zones
1. mediterranean sea
2. indian ocean
why was this trade route so easy?
they needed one language, arabic
they needed one currancy, the abbasid dinar to travel from cordoba to bahgdad and on to china
how did muslims encourage the flow of trade?
they set up banks
sakks
like checks
cordoba
city in al-Andulus
who is majority and who is minority: shi'ites and sunni?
sunni-majority
shi'ite=minority
what was damascus known for?
cloth called damask and for outstaniding steel swords and armor-centerof islamic learning
umayyad capital
cordobo
fatmid capital
cairo
abbasid capital
bahdad
4 social classes
1. upper class-muslims at birth
2. 2nd class-converts
3. thiird class-"protected people"
4. slaves
muslim women
had marriage family and property rights
house of wisdom
combination library, academy, and translation center opened in baghdad by caliph a'ma'mun
physician who wrote wrote Comprehensive Book and Treatise on Smallpox and Measles
al-Razi
mathematician who studied algebra
al-khwarizmi
matematician who created book called Optics about how rays pass from peoples eyes from objects
Ibn al-haytham
ibn rushd
tried to harmonize his writings w/ greek and such
what were sufis known for?
their poetry that ofcuseed on mystical experiences w/ god
one thousand and one nights
collection of entertaining stories that included fairy tales, parables, and legends
why did islam forbid depiction of lviing things?
said only allah could create life
calligraphy
art of beautiful handwriting
architecture
blended different cultues, like byzantene and roman