Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does HOLDLOCK mean
Hold a shared lock until completion of the transaction instead of releasing the lock as soon as the required table, row or data page is no longer requred. Holdlock is equivalent to Serializable
What does NOLOCK mean
Do notissue shared locks and do not honor exclusive locks. When this option is in effect, it is possible to read an uncommitted transaction or a set of pages that are rolled back in the middle of a read
what does PAGELOCK mean
Use page locks where a single table lock would usually be taken
What does READCOMMITTED mean
Perform a scan with the same locking semantics as a transaction running at the READ COMMITTED isolation level. By default, SQL Server 2000 operates in this isolation level
What does UPDLOCK mean
Use update lock on a table. This lock prevents others from reading or updating the table and is held until the end of the statement or transaction.
What does ROWLOCK mean
Use row level locks instead of the coarser-grained page and table level locks
When do lost updates occur
Lost updates occur when two or more transactions select the same row and then update the row based on the value originally selected.
When do Uncommitted Dependency (Dirty Read) occur
Dirty Reads occur when a second transaction selects a row that is already being updated by a transaction.
When do Inconsistent Analysis (non repeatable read) occur
Inconsistent analysis occurs when a second transaction accsses the same row several times and reads different data each time
When do Phantom Reads occur
Phantom reads occur when an insert or delete action is performed against a row that belongs to a range of rows being read by a transaction
Optimistic Concurrency
works on the assumption that resource conflicts between multiple users are unlikely and enables transactions to execute without locking any resources.
Pessimistic Concurrency
locks resources as they are required, for the durration of the transaction
Isolation Levels
enables all transactions to run in complete isolation from another
How do you create a view
USE Database
CREATE VIEW CustomerOrders
SELECT colums FROM table WHERE criteria
What are Indexed Views
Indexed views are physically stored in the database just like tables.
How do you modify a view
ALTER VIEW viewname
SELECT colums FROM tablename
WHERE criteria
How do cursors extend result processing?
- Allowing positioning at specific rows

-Retrieving one row or block of rows from the current position in the result set

-Supporting data modifications to the rows at the current position in the result set

-Supporting different levels of visibility for changes made by other users to the data

-Providing access to the data in a result set for Transact-SQL statements in scripts
What are the three types of cursors?
-Transact-SQL cursor

-API cursor

-Client cursor

Only Transact SQL statements can reference Transact SQL cursors
What APIs support SQL Server 2000 API cursors
What tasks can API cursors complete?
-Opening a connection
-Setting attributes defining the characteristics of the cursor that the API automatically maps over each result set
-Executing one or more Transact SQL statement
-Using API functions or methods to fetch the rows in the result set
How do you return a result set as XML?
what is RAW mode for XML?
transforms each row in the query result set into an XML element with the generic identifier row.
what is AUTO mode for XML?
returns query results as nested XML elements. Each table in the FROM clause, from which at least one column is listed in the SELECT clause is represented as an XML element
what is EXPLICIT mode for XML
the query writer controls the shape of XML document returned by the execution of the query.
what does XMLDATA keyword specify?
XMLDATA keyword specifies that an XML-Data schema should be returned.