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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell body
at the receptor site...
-the site will only respond to one neurostransmitter
-if it's right, it will change the permeability
neurotransmitter and the receptor site have this (they like each other)
when the permeability changes...
-substance that couldn't enter now can
-those that couldn't go out, now can
-these substances have electrical charges which will change too
place between the terminal button on the sendint neuron and the receptor site on the receiving neuron
-aka: synaptic gap
towards the tail
towards the side
process of IPSP
1. potassium rushes out of cell - cell becomes negative
2. chloride rushes out - becomes more positive
3. returns to resting potential
cell membrane
-defines boundaries of the cell
-keeps extracellular fluid separate from intracellular fluid
what does the EPSP do
-increases the chance the receiving neuron will fire
-we see an electrical charge that moves to the cell body
the 3 forces within the neuron
1. sodium potassium pump
2. potassium leaks out soma
3. protein anion
inhibitory post-synaptic potential
process of EPSP
1. sodium rushes in (hyper-polarization)
2. potassium rushes out (hyper-polarization)
3. back to resting potential
-born witout a cerebrum
-can cry, be comforted, sleep/wake cycle, alter heartbeat/breathing, swallow/chew, vomit/suck, etc.
glial cells
*4 types
support cells in the CNS that help the neuron
1. astrocyte
2. microglia
3. oligodendraglia
4. ependymal
satellite cells
provide physical support for the neurons in the PNS
what does IPSP do
increases probability the receiving cell won't fire
-an extrusion from the soma
-carries the electrical charge away from the cell body
central nervous system
brain & spinal cord
-dependent on PNS
-formulate a response and sends it to effectors
-command headquarters and sends responses through PNS
-outbound information is motor/descending/efferent
ependymal cells
-line the ventricles (cavities of the brain)
-manufacture cerebral spinal fluid
cranial nerves
-above the neck
-12 pairs in PNS
-provide motor and sensory
-exit along the lateral edges of the brain stem
when a neuron goes across the cleft and attaches itself...
-electrical charge changes the permeability
-dendrite carries stimulation to cell body
-fires if there's sufficient charge
-divides left to right
-at midline
-not at midline
schwann cells
provide myelin sheath that covers the axons in the PNS
-collateral sprouting
functions of the spinal cord
-lots (sensory) information going up
-descending information
-mediate simple reflexes
nervous system
-a basic communication system
-enables all parts of the body to communicate
-distributed unevenely
-divided into central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
3 parts of the brain stem in descending order
1. midbrain
2. pons
3. medulla
electricity within the neuron - 3 forces
keeps the substances distrubted unevenly across the cell membrane so we have a difference in charges
because of the 3 forces...
the intracellular fluid is different that the extracellular fluid
localized receptor site
what happens in the moment of the synapse
protein anion
-negative charge
-so big it can never fit out the door
towards the brain
terminal buttons response to a charge
has its vesicles migrate to the edge of the terminal button and secretes it into the synaptic cleft
towards the middle
neuro/nerve cell
basic functioning part of the nervoys system
-parallel to the ground
-divide top and bottom
-basic functioning part of the CNS and PNS
-different shapes and sizes
-property of excitability
sodium potassium pump
-positive charge
-in the cell membrane throught the perimeter
-sodium out; potassium in
spinal cord
runs down through vertebral column
divided into:
-brain stem
oligodendraglia cells
-provides a myelin sheath wrapped around the axon
-provides insulation, so not influenced by outside factors
brain stem
-connects cerebrum to the spinal cord
-connects cerebellum to the spinal cord
-plays a transmissive role
-takes care of complex (vegetative) reflexes
-ex. swallowing, heart beat
integrates motor behavior
collateral sprouting
-if one neuron is killed, and adjacent neuron can go to help it heal
-bc of this, damage here has a good prognosis (only in PNS)
spinal nerves
-motor and sensory branch
-when joined together, mixed nerve
when a neuron fires...
-the charge goes to the terminal button which responds by secreting a chemical into the synaptic cleft called neurotransmitter
-goes across the cleft and attaches itself
stored in the terminal button in little packages called vesicles
property of excitability
-property of the neuron
-if a neuron is sufficiently stimulated, it will send an electrical charge down it's length
peripheral nervous system
cranial nerves

spinal nerves
autonomic nervous system
-automatic responses
-sympathetic and parasympahtetic branches
-made of spinal and cranial nerves
astrocyte cells
-phagocytosis (house cleaning)
-isolates the synapse
-provides blood-brain barrier
inside charge
-70mV in comparison to the outside
peripheral nervous system
-31 pairs of spinal nerves
-segmental organization
-nerves exit at each segment
excitatory post-synaptic potential
-have receptors
-stimulate cranial nerves or spinal nerves
potassium leaks out soma
glial cells in the PNS
-satellite cells
-schwann cells
towards the front
towards the back
cross section
divides front to back
-paired cerebral hemispheres
-mediates higher functions
-ex. reasoning
glial cell tumors
microglia cells
parts of the neuron
-cell membrane