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30 Cards in this Set

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diagram showing possible gene combinations
punnett square
Specific charectoristics
trait
produced by crossing parents with different alleles
hybrids
reproductive cell
gametetes or alliet
branch of biology that studies heredity
genetics
transformation
a process in which one strain of bacteria appears to change into another one
nucleotides
made up of three parts: dexyribose molecule, phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
the principle of _______ states that hydrogen bonds can form only between certain bases in DNA
base pairing
Eukaryotic chromosomes contain both DNA and protein tightly packed together to form a substance called
chromatin
replication
process in which DNA makes a copy of itself
DNA polymerase
principle enzyme involved in DNA replication
mutations
a change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information
a series of genes called _______ controls organs and tissues that develop in various parts of the embryo
hox genes
evolution
change over time
fossils
preseved remains of an ancient organism
natural variation
differences amoung individuals witin a species
struggle for survival
competition for food, space, and other resources among members of species
fitness
the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in a specific enviroment
adaptation
inherited charecteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
survival of the fittest
natural selection
common descent
all species are derived from common ancestors
homologous structures
structures that develop from the same embryonic tissues, but have different mature forms
vestigial organ
organs with little or no function
The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population is called a
gene pool
The _______ of an allele is the number of times that the allele occurs in a new gene pool, compared with the number of times other alleles occur
relative frequency
A ___________ is a trait controlled by a single gene
single-gene trait
________ are controlled by two or more genes
polygenic traits
a random change in allele frequency is called
genetic drift
A species or small group of species evolves into many new species during
adaptive radiation
The pattern of long stable periods interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change is known as _________.
punctuated equilibrium