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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
study skill
similar to learning strategies. some examples of these for a freshman comp. class are: planning a calendar, using dictionary skills, note-taking, outlining, speed reading, skimming, and scanning.
process approach to writing or Process-oriented writing
focuses on procedures for solving problems, discovering ideas, expressing them in writing, and revising emergent texts—typically, in isolation from any cultural educational, or sociopolitical contexts in which writing might take place. Faigley (1986) divided process writing proponents into two distinct categories: expressivists and cognitivists. Most implementations of process-based pedagogies share a number of fundamental, recursive practices such as prewriting, peer and teacher feedback, and revision.
product approach to writing
was used in the early 20th century into the 1960s and known also as the traditional paradigm. The product approach is not grounded in a fully articulated theory of education or cognitive development. Little if any effort was dedicated to the strategies and other cognitive operations involved in putting pen to paper and drafting a coherent, meaningful piece of connected discourse. To master school-based written genres textbooks of that era followed a similar pattern: a) T would introduce and define a rhetorical form or pattern (eg., comparison) b) Ss would read, discuss, and interpret a work of literature.c) T would assign a writing task based on the literature perhaps with an outline.d) Ss would prepare their composition. e) T would evaluate and perhaps comment on Ss’ assignments.
expressivist view of process approach
Composing is a creative act in which the process (the discovery of the true self) is as important as the product. Based on the belief that writing instruction should be nondirective and personalized, expressionism writing instruction involved tasks designed to promote self-discovery, the emergence of personal voice, and empowerment of the individual’s inner writer. Journal writing and personal essays are tasks. Expressivism values fluency and voice as the chief tools for achieving writing proficiency.
cognitivivist view of process approach
focuses principally on developing writers’ instrumental processes, particularly cognitive and metacognitive strategies for creating, revising, and correcting their texts independently.Cognitivist views writing as problem solving approach. It places greater value on high-order thinking and problem-solving operations, which include planning, defining rhetorical problems, positioning problems in a larger context, elaborating definitions, proposing solutions, and generating grounded conclusions. Invention and prewriting tasks, abundant text-level revision, collaborative writing, feedback sessions, and the postponement of editing until the final stages of the composing cycle.
social constructivist view
The audience or target discourse community largely determines knowledge, language, and the nature of both spoken and written discourse. The social constructionist premise is that NS and NNS writers need to be apprenticed into one or more academic discourse communities, and that writing instruction consequently should prepare students to anticipate, satisfy, and even challenge the demands of academic readers as they generate their written products
The readership for printed matter, as for a book.
In conferencing, the T usually meets Ss on a one-on-one basis.
Extensive reading
the practice of reading large amounts of text for extended periods of time. Pleasure reading is often extensive.
Intensive reading
calls students’ attention to grammatical forms, discourse markers, and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning, implications, rhetorical relationships, and the like.
a category of literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content.
The role of authentic materials/topics
Authentic materials are beneficial to Ss for three reasons:

1) They allow Ss to take part in real, socially grounded communicative events in a real genre for a real audience.

2) They help Ss acquire the rules of use and usage which are necessary for the comprehension and production of specific text types as well as for teaching them.

3) They can be used by a T to supplement a core textbook or materials package if the T finds that there is a gap in existing course materials or a mismatch between those materials and Ss’ needs and capabilities (or between the materials and course goals).