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51 Cards in this Set

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Orientation vs. motivation
Orientation = reasons why learners are studying L2 (PURPOSE)

Motivation = intensity of one’s drive to learn (DRIVE)
Behaviorist views of motivation
Motivation is simply the anticipation of reward. We are driven to acquire positive reinforcement.
Cognitive psychology’s view of motivation
Cognitivists believe that learners have multiple sources of motivation and varying degrees of self-reward, with extrinsic rewards only being part of the whole picture.
schema
the knowledge, information, emotion, experience, and culture that the learner brings to a text. A text does not by itself carry meaning.
realia
objects teachers bring in to aid learning
controlled techniques
teacher-centered and structured techniques where student response is predictable
semi-controlled techniques
between controlled and free techniques on the continuum
free techniques
student-centered, communicative and open-ended techniques. Student response is not predictable.
information gap activities
Activities in which
1. Primary attention is on information and not language forms
2. Necessitates communicative interaction to achieve the objective

Each student has part of the information that the other Ss in the group need.
jigsaw activities
A type of information gap activity in which each member of the group is
1. given some specific information and
2. the goal is to PULL all information to achieve some objective
Ex. Strip story
scope and sequence (charts)
an organizational framework outlining the sequenced units of analysis in a curricular syllabus
i.e., what’s taught when
Suprasegmental phonemes
Sound features that create intonation, such as pitch, stress, and juncture
(e.g., light housekeeper vs. lighthouse keeper
Segmental phonemes
The basic, smallest, indivisible unit of sound of consonants and vowels.
Options for error treatment
1. Treat or ignore
2. Treat now or delay
3. Transfer treatment individually or to the whole group (well-managed group work encourages spontaneous peer feedback on errors)
4. Peer correction
5. Private or public
Global errors
errors that interfere with comprehensibility of a text
Local errors
errors that do not interfere with comprehensibility of a text
Minimal pairs
2 words that differ only by a single phoneme Ex. “pin”and “bin”
Decoding
Bottom-up processing skill in which sound-symbol correspondences are interpreted for meaning
Bottom up processing
Readers or listeners recognize discrete linguistic signals and build up meaning bit by bit. (letters, morphemes, syllables, words, phrases, discourse markers)
Top down processing
start with triggering schemata, predictions, interpretations.

Inductive instruction

Readers or listeners draw on own world knowledge and experience to understand a text.
Interactive processing
The continual shift from bottom up processing to top down processing to understand the meaning of a text.
Reading skills
Reading requires the integration of numerous microskills (Brown).

1. Discriminate between graphemes
2. Recognize a core of words and interpret word order patterns meaning
3. Recognize cohesive devices and their role in signaling the relationship
4. Recognize grammatical structures meaning
5. Infer implied and literal meaning
6. Infer links and connections between ideas
7. Detect and interpret cultural references
8. Use many reading strategies
Reading strategies
examples:
1. Identify the purpose in reading
2. Use efficient silent reading techniques
3. Skim the text for main ideas
4. Scan the text for specific information
5. Use semantic mapping or clustering 6. Guess when you are uncertain
7. Use discourse markers
Skimming
quickly running one’s eyes across the whole text for its gist
Scanning
quickly searching for a particular piece of information in a text (names and dates, definitions, key concepts)
Behaviorist’s influence on writing
Product approach, accuracy based. Not process approach to writing, which is cognitivist)
proofreading
editing for mechanics, grammar, formatting
journals
A type of reflective self-writing, where the self is the audience
peer editing
Getting feedback from classmates on how to improve a composition
composing/writing
Composing = A writing process consisting of thinking, (generating ideas) drafting, (organizing ideas) and revising. (clarifying meaning)

Writing = the graphic representation of spoken language
brainstorming
unedited generation of ideas, Effective prewriting activity
freewriting
Writing on a topic without stopping for 10 minutes
dictation
An exercise of language comprehension in which Ss write down what they hear
while the T reads.
contrastive rhetoric
Kaplan’s (1966) thesis that different L1 groups have different patterns of written discourse (e.g., Asian languages have circular discourse patterns)
authenticity
Ts assign real writing tasks, as opposed to display writing tasks, that correspond to the learners’ real-life purposes for learning English
Process approach to writing
Instructional approach to writing in which Ss compose in 6 stages:
1. Pre-writing
2. Drafting
3. Sharing
4. Revising
5. Editing
6. Evaluating
Prewriting
First stage of composing in which Ss generate ideas through a number of techniques, such as:
1. Brainstorming
2. Listing
3. Discussing
4. Freewriting
Drafting
A stage of process writing in which Ss produce initial versions of a composition
Revising
A stage of process writing in which Ss utilize feedback from peers to make the writing clear and more convincing.
Editing
A stage of process writing in which Ss impose correctness on their writing in the areas of:
grammar
mechanics (spelling and punctuation)
formatting.
Product approach to writing
Instructional approach to writing in which Ts are concerned primarily with how well the final product of writing measures up to a prescribed idea of organization, vocabulary, grammar, content, and mechanics criteria
No multiple revisions, peer editing, editing and evaluation stages
Error correction in writing
Error treatment can begin in the drafting and revising stages in response to corrections by oneself,
peers, or instructor.
Form focussed instruction
Instruction which draws learners’ attention to forms and structures within a communicative framework of meaning-focused instruction.
Consciousness raising
Instruction designed to help Ss become aware of how language works by focusing on one or two structures or forms at a time.
Noticing
Schmidt’s (1990) theory: Noticing is necessary for input to become intake. Attention is necessary for acquisition to take place and noticing is a conscious process.

Everything we come to know about language was first consciously noticed.
Contrasts sharply with Krashen’s view that all you need is comprehensible input.
Register
The degree of formality/informality of the language context.
Vocabulary in context
The belief that vocabulary should not be taught from a list, but within a communicative framework.

No teaching words in isolation from lists; No having students look up dictionary definitions from list of words
Rebecca Oxford
Researcher who stresses the importance of incorporating strategies based instruction in ESL/EFL classes.
Strategy Inventory for Language Learning
Oxford’s (1990) taxonomy of learning strategies in which learners manage or control their own learning process.

Direct strategies or cognitive strategies include:
1. Memory devices
2. Outlining
3. Note taking

Indirect strategies include:
1. Managing emotions
2. Identifying one’s anxiety level
3. Using positive self-talk
4. Rewarding oneself for good performance
Learning styles
General approaches to learning.

Traits, tendencies or preferences that differentiate one person from another, related to personality or cogntion.

They are relatively stable and unchanging.

Examples:
1. global or analytic
2. auditory, visual or kinesthetic
Learning strategies
Specific, conscious and purposeful techniques used by Ss to enhance their own learning.

Capitalizes on principles of successful learning. As opposed to learning styles, learning strategies can be taught.