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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychological and social factors that impel a person to act and affect a person’s level of effort and persistence.
Attribution Theory
Theory that attempts to explain the underlying causes of a person’s behavior.
Dispositional Attribution
An attributional inference about a quality or trait that an individual may possess.
Causal Attribution
An inference about why something happened
Informational Bias
Bias resulting from discrepancies between self knowledge, our knowledge of others, and other’s knowledge of us.
Perceptual Bias
Bias resulting from our inability to see ourselves as others see us.
Motivational Bias
Bias resulting from a more negative set and designed to preserve a positive sense of self.
Self Serving Attributional Bias
Bias resulting from attributing success to internal factors and failure to external events (task difficulty, luck)
Cognitive Attributional Model
The idea that a person’s success or failure is a function of ability, effort, task difficulty and luck.
Weiner’s Three Dimensional Taxonomy:
: A three part classification of the perceived causes of success and failure based on stability, locus of causality and controllability.
Social Cognitive Attributional Models
Models that emphasize the role of self efficacy, mastery, and goal achievement in explaining behavior.
Self Efficacy Theory
A social cognitive approach to attribution suggesting that success or failure depends on a person’s belief about his or her own ability and about the likelihood that a given behavior (effort, practice) will lead to a specific outcome. This is based on two factors:
Efficacy Expectancy
A person’s belief about their own ability.
Outcome Expectancy
A person’s belief about the likelihood that a given behavior will lead to a specific outcome
Perceived Competence Theory
This S.C. approach to attribute relates success or failure to positive and negative evaluations by significant others and peer groups.
o Collective Efficacy
A team’s beliefs about its ability and about the likelihood that a given behavior will lead to a specific outcome.
• Goal Achievement Model:
An SC approach to attribution that relates success or failure to perceptions of what constitutes an appropriate goal in any specific situation.
• Functional Attribution Model:
An SC approach that places much emphasis on maintaining and enhancing self esteem as the core of attributional efforts.
o Need for Achievement
Murray proposed this need to achieve and set challenging goals.
• McClelland Atkinson Model
The idea that motivation to achieve is a function of the relative strengths of hope of success and fear of failure.
• Cognitive Evaluation Theory of Motivation
This theory of intrinsic motivation suggests that IM is a product of competency, self determination and feelings of worth in competitive situations.
• Over-justification Hypothesis
Process whereby reinforcement is provided beyond what is minimally necessary, thus causing a person to question the justification for responding in the first place.
• Locus of Control
Individuals beliefs about how much control they have over the situation they are in and over what happens to them.
o Rotters I-E Scale
A scale that measures the extent to which a person has internal or external locus of control.
• Levenson’s IPC Scale
: A scale that measures the extent to which a person has an internal or external locus of control but divides externality into two subcategories: powerful others and chance.
• Self Theory
An all encompassing term that includes self concept, self esteem, self actualization tendencies and other aspects of the self.
• Self Concept
The mental image of oneself determined by three components: cognitive, affective and behavior. Describe these three...
• Self Actualization
Maslow’s term for the full realization of one’s potential.
o Personal Orientation Inventory
A device used to measure self actualization.
o Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
A model that explains motivation in terms of the satisfying of five types of needs: Physiological Needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem, actualization
• Willis Sport Motivation Scale
Scale designed to measure motive to achieve success (MAS), motive to avoid failure (MAF) and motive to achieve power (MAP).
• Goal Setting Theory
The idea, found applicable not only in business but in sport, that specific but difficult goals that are agreed to and feedback about goal achievement will facilitate performance.
• SMART Goals
Smith’s acronym for goals that are simultaneously:

o Specific
o Measurable
o Action oriented
o Realistic
o Timely
• Explanatory Styles
The way in which a person accounts for positive and negative happenings. A negative, pessimistic style sometimes correlates with poorer performance than does a positive, optimistic styles.
A behavioral process by which one group member influences the other members regarding the attainment of the group’s goals.
• Power
The ability to influence or change the attitudes or behaviors of others.
o Expert Power
Power because you are really skilled in some field (IT Dept)
o Legitimate Power
Power because you are the boss or leader of a company.
o Referent Power
Power because people like you
• Trait Theory
An approach to the study of leadership based on the assumption that certain innate traits distinguish leaders from non leaders (Born Leader). Focus is placed on the leader
• Behavioral Theory of Leadership
An approach to leadership that is based on the assumption that the actions of leaders differ from the actions of non leaders. The effectiveness of leadership is based on external criteria such as employee turnover, productivity, morale and work absence.
• Fiedler’s Contingency Model:
This model beleives that the effectiveness of leadership depends on the characteristics of both the leader and the situation. Focus is on situational factors as opposed to simply the leader. There are two styles of leadership:
o Autocratic Task Leadership
This type of leadership focuses on what tasks need to be completed and delegates responsibility to appropriate subordinates.
o Democratic Relationship Oriented
This type of leadership focuses on the relationship and teamwork of the group.
• Path Goal Theory
An approach to leadership that proposes that effective leaders motivate subordinates to achieve goals by making rewards available, keeping the path to goal achievement free of obstacles and being mindful of subordinates levels of personal satisfaction. Situational variables of significance include:
• Life Cycle Theory of Leadership
An approach to leadership that focuses on the maturity (motivation, experience, and competence) of followers. Changes in the maturity of the followers prompt changes in the leader’s task behavior and relationship behavior. Four styles of leadership are identified in this model:
o Low Task/High Relationship:
In this relationship, TASK RELATIONSHIP Participating is the key term. Shared decision making and two way communication are endorsed.
o High Task/High Relationship
In this relationship, TASK RELATIONSHIP, Leader engages in selling behavior. Two way communication and social psychological support are present.
o High Task/Low Relationship
In this relationship, TASK RELATIONSHIP, Leader is very assertive and tells people what to do. One way communication
o Low Task-Low Relationship
In this relationship, TASK RELATIONSHIP, Leader delegates what to do. Followers are mature and can move on their own.
• Functional Model of Leadership
An approach to leadership that proposes that effective leaders attend to both the:
Instrumental Needs: Tasks and goals of the team, and expressive Needs: relationships, social, and emotional needs of the team.
• Multidimensional Model of Leadership
An approach to leadership that proposes three types of leader behavior: Actual: Behavior that is engaged by leader regardless of what is wanted or needed. Preferred: Behavior that the subordinates would like to see in the leader. Required: Behavior expected of the leader on a more formal basis, such as organizational demands.
• Pendulum Model of Cohesion
The idea that forces swing team members back and forth between cohesion and disunity. Lakers had cohesion, had some rough patches with Kobe, and seemed to have disunity then picked it back up in the playoffs with cohesion.
• Linear Model of Cohesion
Idea that cohesion progresses in a predictable way through a series of stages: forming, storming, norming and finally performing.
• Life Cycle Model of Cohesion
The idea that the life cycle of a group is similar to a humans …meets, norms, grows, and finally dies off like at Franco’s.
o Ringlemann Effect
The tendency of the average effort of group members to decrease with an increase in group size. Relationship isn’t simply linear but rather curvilinear. It peaks and stays at same level…doesn’t keep increasing.
o Social Loafing
A decrease in individual effort due to the presence of coworkers.
o Social Striving
An increase in individual effort due to factors such as intergroup competitiveness and partner effort.
Tripplet found that children reeled fishing lines faster when others were present.
What did Triplet find about audience effects?
Social Facilitation Model:
Presence of same species increases arousal and strengthens the dominant response. Under an easy task, performance enhancement occurs. Under a difficult task, performance impairment occurs.
• Evaluation Apprehension
Presence of others only leads to arousal if they can evaluate us. Fear of negative evaluation leads to arousal.
• Mere Presence Hypothesis
The theory that individual performance is facilitated by the presence of either a passive audience of spectators or an active group of
co participants.
• Futile Caution
An individual performing a skill based task in front of a supportive audience attempts to work slowly in a futile (doesn’t work) attempt to ensure accuracy.
• Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRG):
Associating oneself with a winner in order to enhance one’s self esteem and social image.
Image protecting tactic used to distance oneself from a loser in order to protect your self esteem and social image.
• Drive theories
These types of theories focus that physical arousal is the key during audience participation. But these experiments included audience which were not participating.
The intent to physically, verbally, or psychologically harm someone who is motivated to avoid such treatment and/or the physical destruction of property when motivated by anger.
• Hostile Aggression
Actions motivated by anger that have the intent of harming another person or object.
• Instrumental Aggression
Actions tended to harm another person with the goal of achieving a result other than the victims suffering, such as victory.
• Sport Violence
Harm inducing behavior bearing no direct relationship to competitive goals of sports, but rather to incidents of uncontrolled aggression outside the rules of sport.
• Displaced Aggression
Aggression that is not directed at the person or situation that sparked aggressive feelings but is instead diverted to some other target.
• Instinctual Theories
Humans are born with an instinct to act aggressively (Freud). This instinct is unlearned and universal. Individuals accumulate aggressive energies that need to be released (usually when environmental stimuli provoke it).
o Catharsis
: The release of aggression through aggression. Two kinds of catharsis exist:
• Drive Reduction Models:
Looks similar to instinctual model but the aggressive drive is not inborn but rather the result of environmental stimuli.
o Frustration Aggression Hypothesis:
The theory that frustration (the blocking of motivated behavior) always precedes aggression.
• Aggression Catharsis
Actual physical violence released through catharsis
• Symbolic Catharsis
Tearing a pic through catharsis
• Social Learning Theory
Aggression is learned through modeling. The expression of aggression reinforces directly or vicariously towards aggression.
• Contagion Theory
A theory of fan violence emphasizing milling whereby tension and excitation create an atmosphere of psychological contagion.
• Convergence Theory
A theory of fan violence emphasizing the coming together of divergent groups as a result of the fevered pitch of a sporting event.
• Emergent Norm Theory
A theory of fan behavior emphasizing the development of normative expectancies over extended periods of time (staying quiet during golf)
Neural explanation to aggression.
The brains of antisocial personality individuals have less prefrontal cortex activity and are 15% smaller.
 Vicarious Reinforcement
: Results from observing other individuals being rewarded for performing specific behavior.
 Deindividuation
The loss of a sense of individuality coupled with an increase in willingness to conform to group norms.
• Psychosocial Model of Fan Violence:
o Potentiating factors, identification, group solidarity and deindividuation are one set of factors. When these are coupled with off field factors like alcohol, Frustration, modeling, along with on field factors such as bad calls, score, type of sport, violence can occur.
Smith’s Violence Typology
A typology that distinguishes among four types of violence: body contact, borderline violence, quasi criminal violence, and criminal violence.
Typology of Violent Men:
This identifies types of aggressors found in sports: Self image promoters, self image defenders, rep defenders, self indulgers and bully sadists.
• Personality
The underlying, relatively stable psychological structure and processes that organize human experience and shape a person’s activities and reactions to the environment. This is the mixture of the core and peripheral (state) of each of us.
Role Related Behaviors
The most superficial and easily changeable aspects of personality
Typical Responses
: Predictable behaviors in response to daily events that are slightly less entrenched than core traits
Psychological Core (deepest):
A person’s basic personality composed of main traits, stable and unchanging over time. The Real You.
• Peripheral States
Aspects of a person’s basic personality that are constantly changing. “Our Opinions on religion, politics, race…”
• Interaction Model, person, situation and Mode of Response
Behavior is a function of personality and environment. Seven sources explain the variances in behavior. Three factors are detailed...DETAIL THEM!!!!!
• Constitutional Theory
Sheldon’s theory of somatotypes or basic body types that predict personality. Big people are bullies, skinny people are neurotic.
Degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure.
 Content Validity
Refers to the degree to which a group of test items are representative of the universe of items that could be asked. How representative of the unit is asking 50 questions on an exam?
 Criterion Validity
Its ability to predict or make a decision regarding some test.
 Construct Validity:
Theoretical devise used in psychology to infer the existence of a theory.
o Reliability
The extent to which a test yields consistant results.
• Profile of Mood States (POMS):
A psychometric instrument that measures 6 temporary aspects of mood.
o Tension-Anxiety
o Depression-Dejection
o Anger-Hostility
o Vigor-Activity
o Fatigue-Inertia
o Confusion-Bewilderment
o Iceberg Profile:
A configuration of scores derived from the POMS applied to sports research to distinguish successful from less successful athletes in terms of transient personality states. When comparing Olympic wrestlers and unsuccessful wrestlers, successful wrestlers were high only in Vigor-Activity whereas unsuccessful was high in everything.
Cognitive resources, mental effort devoted to a cognitive process.
Athletes must be able to attend to important info and filter out irrelevant info. There are two implications:
1. Athletes want to automate as many processes as possible so they have fewer things to attend to.
2. Athletes should try to convey as much extraneous information to their opponents in order to divide their attention (fucked up)
Research has shown that attention is positively correlated with performance because why?
• Narrow Attentional Focus
Focusing on just one or a few stimuli.
• Broad Attentional Focus
Focusing on many different stimuli
Internal Attentional Focus
Directing attention inward towards own thoughts and feelings
External Directional Focus:
Direction attention outwards towards environmental stimuli.
Attrition Model
Athletics is a demanding task and while playing, some will drop out.
Selection Model:
Different personalities are drawn to sports. They seek it out.
Change Model:
Playing sports and being involved in sports will change a person as a result of the competition and hard work.