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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Blacks are biologically superior (muscles, and strength)
• Genetic Hypothesis
Blacks are geared towards sports because of their culture
• Social Influences:
A form of discrimination whereby minorities are denied access to the opportunities for success in athletics.
o Sport Opportunity Structure:
Peripheral positioning of minority players in sports such as football and baseball.
In terms of racial representation in sports, groups in which blacks or whites dominate nearly 100% of positions. (Gymnastics and golf for whites, track and boxing for blacks)
o Skewed Groups
Groups in which the ratio of black or white majority is 65:35. (Pro basketball for blacks, baseball for whites.
Tilted Groups
Whites are typically seen as more intelligent, and hustle more, whereas blacks are seen as physically superior, and natural talents, but less intelligent.
• Psychological Explanations
Sport activities such as pitching, golf or bowling that focus on an individual’s self initiated tasks. Who does these?
o Self paced activities: Whites
Activities such as hitting a baseball, boxing where the individual reacts to another players initiated task.
o Reactive Tasks:
are the cognitive categories (schemas) that are used by the social perceiver in processing information about people.
o Perceiver’s expects blacks are good at basketball. Perceiver behavior is encouraging the black player. The black player thinks “I guess I will play basketball” which further encourages the perceivers expectations.
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
• Knowing a stereotype exists about one’s group can effect behavior/performance when put in a situation that one could confirm a stereotype.
Stereotype threat
Sports such as skydiving, hand gliding and rock climbing in which the risk of injury or death plays a prominent role.
High Risk Sports
A channel by which the human organism seeks to reduce tension via optimal stimulation.
Sensation Seeking
Seeks to measure four sub dimensions of sensation seeking:
• Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS):
Desire to engage in risk and adventurous activities such as parachuting, mountain climbing.
SSS Scale: 1. Thrill and Adventure Seeking:
Seeking arousal through mind, sense and nonconforming lifestyle.
SSS Scale 2. Experience Seeking
Release through partying, drinking, gambling and sex.
SSS Scale Disinhibition
Aversion to repetition, routine and boring people.
SSS Scale 4. Boredom Susceptibility
In high risk sport, the relationship of birth order to an individuals inclination to engage in dangerous sports. Which birth order is less likely and more likely to engage in dangerous sports?
Birth Order Effects: First borns less likely, 3rd borns more.
A model of the relationship between athletic performance and personality that predicts heterogeneity among athletes at the entry level and homogeneity at the elite level.
• Kroll’s Personality Performance Pyramid:
Kroll’s explanation of personality similarity in elite athletes as a function of preselection and modification of traits while proceeding from the entry to the elite level.
• Modification and Attrition Theory
An athlete with a major physical or psychological disability.
• Athlete with Disabilities:
Exceptional performance emphasized by the role of hard work as opposed to superior innate ability.
Deliberate Practice
Theory that a sport injury produces three responses in athletes: Distress, Denial, Coping
• Affective Cycle Theory, guilt or anger, denial, and active coping
Athletes response to injury is a function of the interaction between personality and situational factors in producing first an emotional and then a behavioral response.
• Cognitive Appraisal Theory:
A comprehensive model of reaction to sports injury based on interaction of personality with situational variables that also proposes a range of intervention strategies.
• Anderson and Williams Theory
A sports specific standardized test that attempts to measure athletes psychological responses to pain.
• Sports Inventory for Pain
Substances that enhance or are thought to enhance an athletes physical performance,
Ergogenic Aids
Stimulant drugs manufactured in the lab, and used by athletes to obtain sudden bursts of energy.
• Amphetamines
Synthetic analogues of the male sex hormone testosterone ingested to enhance muscular development.
• Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS):
Win at all costs philosophy of competitive athletes
Faustian Philosophy
Masculinizing secondary sexual characteristics enhanced by taking steroids.
Androgenig Effects of AAS
Tissue building enhanced by taking steroids, including bone growth, muscular development, deep voice and decrease of body fat.
Anabolic Effects of AAS
Withdrawing blood from an athlete for one month and then reinfusing it to create enhanced performance, also known as blood boosting.
Blood Doping
Anti anxiety drugs used to control tremors and heart palpitations, useful in sports where anxiety reduction is important.
Beta Blockers
An amino acid marketed to improve physical strength.
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that enhances muscle mass, fat free mass and strength. Side effect may include brain disease.
Competitive games for female athletes held in ancient Greece, counterpart to the male only Olympics.
• Heraen Games
Section of the Higher Education Act that prohibits exclusion from educational programs, including physical educations on the basis of sex
• Title IX Provision:
Three part test that US universities must pass to demonstrate that they meet the standards set by this provision of the Higher Education Act.
• Title IX Compliance Test
Male and female coaches receive increasingly disparate salaries: Women’s sport receives far lower budget, money allocations are disproportionate.
Unintended consequences of Title IX
Lowering of a woman’s body fat below a certain point produces biochemical changes leading to cessation of menstrual period.
• Frisch”s Hypothesis:
The process whereby females are socialized into taking part in sports: often facilitated by family role models but complicated by conflicts with traditional female roles. Family is the primary socialization force during early years.
Sports socialization
When a female chooses to be active, aggressive and goal oriented and to engage in instrumental behaviors, she may feel inner conflict.
Role Conflict
The theory to keep women away from sports because they Cant become mothers
Damaged Mothers theory
The theory that they Become unattractive females and masculanized.
• Muscle Molls
Third factor of not wanting women to play sports...currently still in question.
Question the Sexuality of Females
An important area of sport psychology research based on the attribution theory that studies distortion of cognitive processes in relation to sex role stereotypes.
Gender Differences
Concept developed that explains female fear of succeeding. Little evidence.
• Fear of Success:
The state of encompassing, in one’s personality, the best of both gender roles and expectations, including both expressive and instrumental behaviors.
• Psychological Androgyny
Implicit powers of social authority and leadership granted to men only “good ol boy network
Male Hegemony:
A food related psychological complex composed of 3 factors:
• Female Athletic Triad: Disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoperosis.
Term describing those sports that require extreme training and pain endurance such as gymnastics and distance running.
• Grim Asceticism
Initiated out of national concerns about low youth fitness during the 1950’s, these tests have evolved from motoric measures to test of flexibility, body composition and cardio respiratory fitness. Who started it as well?
• Youth Fitness Measures, Eisenhower.
Why are your motivations to be involved in sports? Four reasons are:
Having fun, improving skill, fitness benefits, team atmosphere.
AFA study category of youth sport participants who are motivated by having friends, winning peer approval, and staying fit but are likely to withdraw if peer approval lessens.
o Image Conscious socializers
AFA study category of youths who are motivated by skill improvement and intrinsic rewards; likely to continue in sport into adulthood.
o Competence Oriented Participants:
Youths who are motivated by what others think of them, being made to feel important, and winning awards; comprises the smallest group.
o Reluctant Participants:
• Motives for Withdrawal:
Primary reasons are not having fun, concerns about coaching and conflict of interest with other life activities; secondary reasons are too much pressure from parents and peers, overemphasis on winning and not getting enough play time.
Attitude toward sport that emphasizes winning above all else, tangible rewards, seeking adulation and dehumanization of opponent.
• Product Orientation to Competition:
An attitude toward sport that emphasizes participation as an end in itself, striving for personal or team excellence, aesthetic activity and rapport with competitors.
• Process Orientation to Competition:
A negative emotional state generated when a child feels unable to respond adequately to competitive performance demands.
• Competitive Stress:
A condition identified by Martens, who posits a significant correlation between high trait anxiety and subsequent state related anxiety responses to competition.
• Competitive Trait Anxiety CTA:
A continuing comparison process that begins in the preschool years and continues throughout life; one of Passer’s four cognitive mediators of competitive stress
o Perceived Ability:
Though success is measured in different terms by individuals, expectancy of success in whatever form creates stress.
o Success Expectancy
As powerful as success expectancy and more influential from adults than peers, what you think others will think of you if you lose.
o Expectancy of Negative Evaluation
An individuals anticipation that poor performance will be emotionally painful, more common among high CTA children than low CTA children.
o Expectancy of Negative Affect
Tendency of coaches and parents to live vicariously through elite child athletes.
• Achievement by Proxy
Nickname for over involved parents who engage in verbal and physical abuse against coaches, opposing players and their own children.
• Parentis Vociferous:
Injury to the throwing arm suffered by youth pitchers in baseball.
• Little League Elbow
Any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles that results in an expenditure of energy.
• Physical Activity:
A subset of psychical activity characterized by planned, organized and repetitive components aimed at improving or maintaining physical fitness.
• Exercise
A set of attributes that are related either to health or to skills. Four parts of fitness are essential:
• Physical Fitness: Cario, Muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility
Ability to follow an exercise regiment on a regular basis over an extended period of time. Factored by:
Exercise Adherence: Proximity, spousal support, small groups, internal locus of control, ses.
Associated with an aggressive, hard driving competitive person, at risk for coronary heart disease. More likely to exercise less.
• Type A Personality
Personality trait defined by greater interest in the environment than in oneself. More likely to exercise more.
• Extraversion:
Exercise adherence strategy in which the exerciser and his or her trainer enter a binding contract about the program to be followed.
• Behavioral Contracting:
Exercise adherence strategy in which the exerciser draws the day’s regiment at random as a way of relieving boredom.
Exercise adherence strategy in which the exerciser monitors his or her weight loss, heart rate, blood pressure, generating objective records that reinforce.
Self Monotiring
Exercise adherence strategy in which the exerciser performs the same activity at the same time and place every day.
Stimulus Cueing
Behavioral control strategy that stimulates the response.
This hinges on the proposition that various exercise strategies serve to divert or distract subjects from anxiety producing stressors.
Distraction Hypothesis
Here, the emphasis is on the release of morphine like chemicals within the pituitary gland and the brain that serve to reduce the
Endorphin Hypo
This asserts that the tension reduction associate with exercise is produced by the elevation of body temperature.
Thermogenic Hypo
Largely a model based on research with animals, this hypothesis asserts that anxiety reduction is brought about by exercise through its alteration of various neurotransmitter substances, namely norepinephrine and serotonin.
Monoamine hypo
Physical Benefits of Exercise include
Fighting aids, live longer, less colon cancer, disease resistance, healthier sleeping, creativity.
Attitude toward a behavior, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavior control, lead to Intention which leads to Behavior.
Theory of Planned Behavior
These lead to sports commitment, Sport enjoyment, involvement opportunities, involvement alternatives, personal investment, social support, social constraint
• Scanlan’s Model Review:
Running or exercise, a love of the activity that is tempered by controllability, integration into everyday activities and ability to forgo exercise when necessary, resulting in increased feelings of control, competence and physical/psychological well being.
Positive Addiction
A compulsive need to exercise that overrides considerations of health, relationships and career.
Negative Addiction
A state experienced by distance runners that is characterized by a sudden heightened sense of well being. Usually has to be over 30 minutes of running
Runners High
Legendary runner who brought news of the Greek victory over the Persians from the town of Marathon to Athens; origin of the term marathon for a cross country footrace.
• Pheidippides
Any footrace that exceeds the official marathon distance of 26 miles, 385 yards.
Participants in ultra-marathons.
Research by Spirduso that maintains what?
that RT is affected by physical condition, with older actives having better RT than young inactives.
18 sports held every two years for athletes from 55 to 100 years of age.
• US National Senior Games: