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100 Cards in this Set

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Title: Motivation
1. Participant motivation usually is the result of
a. personal factors
b. situational factors
c. a combination of personal and situational factors
d. the history of success or failure
e. none of the above
c. a combination of personal and situational factors
Achievement motivation can best be viewed as a(n)
a. situational factor
b. personality factor
c. interactional factor
d. attributional factor
e. unstable factor
a. situational factor
As used in the sport psychology literature, motivation can refer to
a. an internal personality characteristic
b. an external influence
c. a consequence of or an explanation for behavior
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
What is critical in affecting the performance and behavior of sport and exercise participants?
a. motivation
b. physiology
c. biomechanics
d. sociological factors
e. all of the above
a. motivation
An effective technique to use to change undesirable motives of a participant is
a. behavior modification
b. cognitive intervention
c. rational emotive therapy
d. cognitive restructuring
e. self-monitoring
e. self-monitoring
The most difficult but most important component of structuring sport and exercise environments to meet an athlete's or exerciser's needs is
a. individualizing coaching and teaching
b. finding rigorous training environments
c. deciding on what motivational strategy to use
d. balancing extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
e. none of the above
a. individualizing coaching and teaching
To understand students', athletes', and exercisers' motives for involvement, one should
a. observe participants to see what they like and do not like about the activity
b. talk to others who know the athletes and exercisers
c. periodically ask the participants to list their reasons for participation
d. all of the above
e. a and c
e. a and c
Which of the following is NOT a motive for continuing involvement in exercise programs?
a. social factors
b. enjoyment
c. weight loss
d. activity type
e. organization’s leadership
c. weight loss
Which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. Mastery goals should be used more often than outcome goals.
b. Feedback to athletes should emphasize attributing their success to high ability and high effort.
c. Lack of effort, rather than lack of ability, should be emphasized after a failure.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
Which of the following is NOT one of the major motives for participating in sport and exercise?
a. having fun
b. being with friends
c. improving skills
d. pleasing parents
e. developing fitness
d. pleasing parents
A disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others" is the definition of which of the following?
a. achievement motivation
b. self-esteem
c. self-confidence
d. self-concept
e. none of the above
e. none of the above
The results of the Sorrentino and Sheppard study have which of the following practical implications?
a. The four fastest swimmers would not necessarily make the best relay team.
b. Both situation and personal factors should be considered in understanding motivation.
c. Approval-oriented swimmers would perform best in relays.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
A study by Sorrentino and Sheppard on motivation of swimmers found that
a. approval-oriented swimmers demonstrated faster times in the group than in the individual situation
b. approval-oriented swimmers demonstrated faster times in the individual situation than in the group situation
c. rejection-oriented swimmers swam faster in individual than in relay situations
d. a and c
e. b and c
d. a and c
The interactional view of motivation claims that motivation is an interaction of which two factors?
a. person and situation
b. goals and coach’s style
c. personality and goals
d. personality and needs
e. goals and win–loss record
a. person and situation
An athlete is more motivated when she plays against competitors who are better than she is than when she plays better than her competitors. This is an example of which approach to motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. interactional
d. individual
e. none of the above
b. situational
Which is the most widely endorsed view of motivation taken by sport psychologists?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. interactional
d. individual
e. none of the above
c. interactional
Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics. This is consistent with which view of motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. individual
d. interactional
e. none of the above
a. trait-centered
Which one of the following is NOT a general orientation to motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. individual
d. interactional
e. none of the above
c. individual
In a general sense, motivation can be defined as
a. the intensity and direction of one's effort
b. the direction and width of one's effort
c. the intensity of one's effort
d. the direction of one's effort
e. none of the above
a. the intensity and direction of one's effort
Defining motivation in a variety of ways is disadvantageous because
a. the precise topics of motivation are seldom identified
b. practitioners often do not recognize how specific motivational strategies interact and influence one another
c. intrinsic motivation is confused with extrinsic motivation
d. a and b
e. a and c
d. a and b
Which of the following is NOT a major reason for initially joining an exercise program?
a. weight loss
b. fitness
c. health factors
d. affiliation
e. to feel better
d. affiliation
Stable attributions are linked to
a. affect
b. cognition
c. expectations of future success or failure
d. emotions
e. none of the above
c. expectations of future success or failure
The overriding characteristic of individuals who exhibit learned helplessness is
a. attributing success to effort
b. feeling their actions have no impact on desired outcomes
c. attributing failure to bad luck
d. feeling they are in control of their actions
e. none of the above
b. feeling their actions have no impact on desired outcomes
Attribution retraining generally focuses on changing
a. low-ability attributions
b. high-effort attributions
c. high-ability attributions
d. task difficulty attributions
e. luck attributions
a. low-ability attributions
Which of the following is NOT a stage of development in competitiveness and achievement motivation?
a. autonomous competence stage
b. integrated stage
c. social-comparison stage
d. perceived competence stage
d. perceived competence stage
In the competence motivation theory, ______ and _________ influence perceived competence, which in turn influences affect and motivation.
a. feedback; attributions
b. feedback; motivational orientations
c. motivational orientations; attributions
d. motivational climate; self-esteem
e. perceived control; feedback
e. perceived control; feedback
Competence motivation theory was based on the research of developmental psychologist
a. Tara Scanlan
b. Susan Harter
c. Thelma Horn
d. Glyn Roberts
e. Albert Bandura
b. Susan Harter
Which type of motivational climate is associated with the most adaptive motivational changes?
a. mastery
b. performance
c. outcome
d. decision making
e. attributional
a. mastery
A task goal orientation will usually lead to which of the following?
a. persistence in the face of failure
b. selecting moderately difficult tasks or opponents
c. a strong work ethic
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
The sport-specific form of achievement motivation is called
a. competitiveness
b. confidence
c. mental preparation
d. mental toughness
e. none of the above
a. competitiveness
Internal and external attributions are linked to
a. emotional reactions
b. cognitions
c. expectations
d. behavioral intent
e. self-talk
a. emotional reactions
Ability is considered a(n) _______ and ________ attribute.
a. stable; external
b. stable; internal
c. unstable; internal
d. unstable; external
e. controllable; unstable
b. stable; internal
Which of the following is NOT an attribution category?
a. stability
b. causality
c. control
d. persistence
d. persistence
Attribution theory focuses on
a. how individuals explain their success and failure
b. how groups explain their personality attributes
c. how individuals explain their personal attributes
d. how individuals explain their personal biases
e. none of the above
a. how individuals explain their success and failure
In terms of emotional factors, high achievers focus on _______, whereas low achievers focus on ________.
a. pride; shame
b. elation; depression
c. fun; depression
d. shame; pride
e. pride; depression
a. pride; shame
For low achievers, which situation provides the LEAST incentive for engaging in achievement behaviors?
a. 50% chance of success
b. 25% chance of success
c. 75% chance of success
d. 60% chance of success
e. 10% chance of success
a. 50% chance of success
For high achievers, which situation provides the MOST incentive for engaging in achievement behavior?
a. 50% chance of success
b. 25% chance of success
c. 75% chance of success
d. 60% chance of success
e. 10% chance of success
e. 10% chance of success
What are the two primary situational considerations in need achievement theory?
a. probability of success and motive to achieve success
b. probability of success and incentive value of success
c. resultant achievement motivation and probability of success
d. incentive value of success and pride or shame
e. pride or shame and probability of success
b. probability of success and incentive value of success
Which of the following is (are) true concerning need achievement theory?
a. High achievers have high motivation to avoid success and low motivation to avoid failure.
b. High achievers enjoy evaluating their abilities.
c. Low achievers often become preoccupied with thoughts of failure.
d. all of the above
e. a and c
c. Low achievers often become preoccupied with thoughts of failure.
Which of the following is NOT a component of achievement motivation theory?
a. motive to achieve success
b. probability of success
c. incentive value of success
d. resultant tendency to approach success
e. motive to seek approval from others
e. motive to seek approval from others
Bill is always concerned with comparing his ability to others' and winning. Bill thus has
a. a mastery goal orientation
b. a task goal orientation
c. an attribution goal orientation
d. an outcome goal orientation
e. an achievement goal orientation
e. an achievement goal orientation
Recent research indicates interesting cross-cultural differences in motives for participation. Which of the following is FALSE?
a. U.S. youngsters are more intrinsically motivated than Korean youngsters.
b. Participants in Asian countries are more interdependent, whereas North Americans are more independent.
c. American youngsters are more motivated by competition than Chinese youngsters, who are more motivated by social affiliation.
d. Chinese Americans are primarily motivated because of travel and having fun.
e. U.S. children are primarily motivated to win, whereas German children are primarily motivated to please parents.
e. U.S. children are primarily motivated to win, whereas German children are primarily motivated to please parents.
The entity view of goal perspectives argues that individuals
a. view their ability primarily as fixed
b. adopt a task focus
c. adopt maladaptive motivational patterns
d. b and c
e. a and c
a. view their ability primarily as fixed
The results of Weinberg and Hunt's (1976) study on college students with high and low trait anxiety demonstrated that
a. increased muscle soreness contributed to inferior performance
b. increased muscle tension contributed to inferior performance
c. increased coordination difficulties contributed to inferior performance
d. a and c
e. b and c
b. increased muscle tension contributed to inferior performance
A substantial imbalance between demand and response capability under conditions in which failure has important consequences refers to
a. arousal
b. sensational pressure
c. stress
d. state anxiety
e. trait anxiety
c. stress
There is a direct relationship between one's level of
a. cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety
b. trait anxiety and state anxiety
c. arousal and stress
d. a and c
e. b and c
trait anxiety and state anxiety
Physiological responses occur in which stage of the stress process?
a. stage 1
b. stage 2
c. stage 3
d. stage 4
e. stage 5
c. stage 3
Arousal refers to the
a. direction of motivation
b. intensity of motivation
c. frequency of motivated behavior
d. interaction of cognition and emotions
e. a and d
b. intensity of motivation
Which of the following is NOT a physical manifestation of excess state anxiety?
a. worry
b. muscle tension
c. attentional problems
d. a and c
e. b and c
c. attentional problems
The importance placed on an event and the uncertainty that surrounds the actions of that event are sources of
a. state anxiety
b. trait anxiety
c. arousal
d. personal stress
e. situational stress
a. state anxiety
Which personality disposition(s) is (are) related to change in state anxiety?
a. trait anxiety
b. social physique anxiety
c. self-esteem
d. all of the above
e. a and c
e. a and c
A highly trait-anxious athlete (compared to a less trait-anxious athlete) would perceive competition as
a. more threatening and less anxiety producing
b. less threatening and less anxiety producing
c. more threatening and more anxiety producing
d. less threatening and more anxiety producing
e. none of the above
c. more threatening and more anxiety producing
Athletes lower in self-esteem are more likely to experience
a. low confidence and high state anxiety
b. low confidence and low state anxiety
c. low confidence and low trait anxiety
d. high confidence and high state anxiety
e. low confidence and low arousal
a. low confidence and high state anxiety
Which theory predicts a linear relationship between arousal and performance?
a. catastrophe theory
b. drive theory
c. inverted theory
d. individualized zones of optimal functioning
e. reversal theory
b. drive theory
The linear relationship between arousal and performance suggests that
a. as arousal increases, performance decreases
b. as arousal decreases, performance decreases
c. as arousal increases, performance increases
d. as arousal decreases, performance increases
e. arousal performance increases to an optimal level, and beyond this, performance decreases
c. as arousal increases, performance increases
A moment-to-moment change in one's perceived physiological activation is referred to as
a. cognitive state anxiety
b. somatic state anxiety
c. activation
d. trait anxiety
e. stress
b. somatic state anxiety
According to the catastrophe model, a "catastrophe" occurs with
a. high state and trait anxiety
b. high cognitive and somatic anxiety
c. high cognitive anxiety and high physiological arousal
d. high somatic anxiety and low physiological arousal
e. none of the above
c. high cognitive anxiety and high physiological arousal
In Hanin's work on individualized zones of optimal functioning, he argues that for best performance to occur, an athlete needs
a. an optimal level of state anxiety
b. an optimal level of trait anxiety
c. an optimal level of state anxiety and other emotions
d. an optimal level of arousal
e. an optimal level of physiological arousal
a. an optimal level of state anxiety
Increased arousal affects attentional focus in which of the following ways?
a. narrowing of focus
b. broadening of focus
c. increase of scanning
d. a and b
e. b and c
a. narrowing of focus
A quarterback needs to shift his attentional focus from surveying the field for receivers to delivering a pass. This shift would be from
a. broad–external to broad–internal
b. broad–external to broad–external
c. broad–external to narrow–external
d. broad–external to narrow–internal
e. narrow–external to broad–external
c. broad–external to narrow–external
One's general level of anxiety that stays relatively stable over time refers to
a. trait anxiety
b. state anxiety
c. cognitive anxiety
d. somatic anxiety
e. arousal
b. state anxiety
In evaluative situations, individuals with high trait anxiety tend to exhibit
a. high arousal
b. low state anxiety
c. high state anxiety
d. high somatic anxiety
e. low cognitive anxiety
c. high state anxiety
The inverted-U hypothesis predicts that
a. as arousal increases, performance decreases
b. arousal can be either too low or too high
c. top performance occurs at a moderate level of arousal
d. a and c
e. b and c
c. top performance occurs at a moderate level of arousal
Hanin's individualized zones of optimal functioning model suggests that
a. each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency
b. performance is best when arousal is moderate
c. performance is best when arousal is high
d. the zone of optimal functioning is the same for all individuals
a. each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency
The relationship between arousal and performance depends on one's interpretation of the arousal level. This is the basic approach of
a. catastrophe theory
b. drive theory
c. reversal theory
d. inverted-U hypothesis
e. zones of optimal functioning
e. zones of optimal functioning
Appropriate guidelines for applying arousal and anxiety knowledge include
a. recognizing the signs of increased arousal and anxiety
b. recognizing how personal and situational factors influence arousal and performance
c. tailoring coaching and instructional practices to individuals
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above
Which of the following is NOT symptomatic of heightened state anxiety?
a. profuse sweating
b. slowed breathing
c. increased muscle tension
d. inability to concentrate
e. sleeping difficulties
b. slowed breathing
Multidimensional anxiety theory predicts
a. a negative relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance
b. an inverted-U relationship between somatic anxiety and performance
c. an inverted-U relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance
d. a and c
e. a and b
a. a negative relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance
According to catastrophe theory, to recover from a catastrophe the athlete must
a. completely relax physically
b. control her worries through cognitive restructuring
c. reactivate herself in a controlled manner
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
Which of the following is (are) true regarding the home-court advantage?
a. It is greatest in baseball and football.
b. Between 1924 and 1982, the home team in the baseball World Series won 77% of the time when there was a seventh game.
c. Between 1984 and 1994 in the National Basketball Association, the home team won 47% of the time when there was a seventh game during the play-offs.
d. a and b
e. none of the above
b. Between 1924 and 1982, the home team in the baseball World Series won 77% of the time when there was a seventh game.
The catastrophe theory suggests that performance is determined by a complex interaction of
a. arousal and stress
b. arousal and trait anxiety
c. arousal and state anxiety
d. physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety
e. state and trait anxiety
a. arousal and stress
Increased levels of anxiety result in alterations in visual search patterns such as
a. gaze tendencies
b. eye fixations
c. mental acuity
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b
Coakley defines cooperation as
a. a situation in which the goals of the participants are mutually independent
b. a social process through which performance is rewarded in terms of the collective achievements of the group
c. a situation in which rewards are distributed unequally among the participants
d. a situation in which rewards are distributed equally among the participants
e. none of the above
b. a social process through which performance is rewarded in terms of the collective achievements of the group
Cooperative reward structures are more effective in which of the following situations?
a. during work on tasks that are simple
b. during work on tasks that are physically demanding
c. during work on tasks that are complex and that involve problem solving
d. during work on tasks that involve more than five people
e. none of the above
c. during work on tasks that are complex and that involve problem solving
Deutsch's study on competition and cooperation found that
a. communication patterns differed significantly based on whether subjects were given cooperative or competitive instructions
b. students receiving competitive instructions exhibited closed communication and mistrust
c. students receiving cooperative instructions communicated openly and shared information
d. all of the above
e. a and b
c. students receiving cooperative instructions communicated openly and shared information
The first experiment investigating the effects of competition on performance was conducted in 1898 by
a. Deutsch
b. Triplett
c. Sherif
d. Mintz
b. Triplett
In the field experiments by Sherif and Sherif, the only thing that worked to bring the campers back together was
a. an all-star game
b. superordinate goals
c. eating together
d. eliminating competitive sports
b. superordinate goals
Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Cooperation produces a higher level of achievement than competition.
b. Cooperation produces a higher level of achievement than individualistic behavior.
c. There is no difference in achievement produced by competition and cooperation.
d. a and b
e. none of the above
c. There is no difference in achievement produced by competition and cooperation.
In Kelley and Stahelski's study using the prisoner's dilemma game, they found that
a. competitors drew cooperators into competition
b. cooperators drew competitors into cooperation
c. cooperators cooperated and competitors competed
d. a and c
e. b and c
d. a and c
Coakley defines competition as
a. a situation in which rewards are distributed equally among the participants
b. a social process that occurs when rewards are distributed on the basis of comparative performance
c. a situation in which the goals of the participant are mutually interdependent
d. b and c
e. none of the above
b. a social process that occurs when rewards are distributed on the basis of comparative performance
According to Coakley, which of the following is (are) characteristic of unstructured youth sport?
a. Personal involvement in the action is maximized.
b. It provides opportunities to reaffirm friendships.
c. Teams are relatively even.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
In relation to the subjective competitive situation (stage 2), which of the following is (are) true?
a. Males score higher than females on win orientation.
b. Females score higher than males on goal orientation.
c. Athletes score higher than nonathletes in competitive orientation.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above
The key part of Martens' definition of competition is
a. social comparison
b. observational learning
c. objective outcome
d. positive reinforcement
e. none of the above
c. objective outcome
Which of the following is a competitive situation according to Martens' definition of the objective competitive situation?
a. a runner competing in a 100-yard dash
b. a swimmer working out by himself
c. a swimmer working out with his coach watching him
d. all of the above
e. a and c
a. a runner competing in a 100-yard dash
The team sports of basketball and football are examples of which of the following classification of games?
a. competitive means—competitive ends
b. cooperative means—competitive ends
c. individual means—individual ends
d. cooperative means—cooperative ends
e. cooperative means—individual ends
b. cooperative means—competitive ends
Which of the following is (are) characteristic of cooperative games?
a. They require little equipment or money.
b. They emphasize participation by all players.
c. Players learn from mistakes rather than hide from them.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
b. They emphasize participation by all players.
In his study of the effects of a 14-week program of cooperative games, Orlick found that
a. kids exposed to cooperative games engaged in three times as much cooperative behavior during free play as did kids in the control group
b. games played by the control group tended to emphasize individualistic concerns
c. kids exposed to cooperative games had higher self-esteem at the end of the program than kids in the control group
d. all of the above
e. a and b
a. kids exposed to cooperative games engaged in three times as much cooperative behavior during free play as did kids in the control group
One athlete looks forward to competition while another dreads the upcoming event. This is an example of
a. the objective competitive situation
b. the subjective competitive situation
c. response
d. consequences
b. the subjective competitive situation
Which of the following is NOT a type of competitive orientation measured by the Sport Orientation Questionnaire?
a. competitive orientation
b. goal orientation
c. fear-of-failure orientation
d. win orientation
c. fear-of-failure orientation
Which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. Varsity athletes have lower GPAs than nonathletes.
b. Varsity athletes have higher rates of deviant behavior than nonathletes.
c. Varsity athletes are no different from nonathletes in terms of eventual career success outside of competitive sport.
d. b and c
c. Varsity athletes are no different from nonathletes in terms of eventual career success outside of competitive sport.
Which of the following statements is (are) FALSE?
a. Boys play competitive games more frequently than girls.
b. Boys' games are more aggressive and involve greater risk taking than girls' games.
c. Girls play games in predominantly male groups more often than boys play games in predominantly female groups.
d. none of the above
e. a and c
d. none of the above
Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Competitors cause cooperators to compete.
b. Cooperators cause competitors to cooperate, regardless of whom they are competing against.
c. Competitors see the world as 50% competitors and 50% cooperators.
d. a and b
e. none of the above
a. Competitors cause cooperators to compete.
Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Elite athletes are high on both win and goal orientations.
b. Research by Weinberg and colleagues has indicated that the most important goal for athletes is to improve performance.
c. Elite athletes are high on win orientation and low on goal orientation.
d. a and b
e. b and c
d. a and b
Competition and cooperation require similar attributes as noted by Charles Garfield. These include
a. a strong preparation ethic
b. a love of challenge and change
c. a strong work ethic
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above
What happened to the two U.S. sailing teams that competed and cooperated with each other while training for the Olympics?
a. Only one team went to the Olympics and earned a medal there.
b. Both teams went to the Olympics but neither won a medal.
c. They finished in first and fourth place at the Olympic Trials.
d. The second-place team members were disappointed but had gained new confidence in their ability to compete at a world-class level.
e. a and d
e. a and d
Which of the following is NOT a stage in Martens' model of competition?
a. objective competitive situation
b. subjective competitive situation
c. response
d. social comparison
e. consequences
d. social comparison
Which of the following behaviors would not support a cooperative learning environment?
a. effort valued
b. success defined in terms of individual progress
c. extrinsic rewards emphasized
d. mistakes viewed as part of learning
e. activity engaged in for challenge
b. success defined in terms of individual progress
Of all the experimental games used by psychologists to study the effects of competition and cooperation, the most often-used game is
a. zero-sum
b. prisoner's dilemma
c. cooperative means
d. cooperative means, competitive ends
e. competitive means
d. cooperative means, competitive ends
In the field experiments conducted by Sherif and Sherif, the experimenters first
a. created strong group identity
b. created hostility among the groups
c. created cooperation among the counselors
d. created competition among the counselors
a. created strong group identity
Indicate any principle here that is NOT derived from the psychological studies on competition and cooperation.
a. Blend competition and cooperation when teaching or coaching physical skills.
b. People are born either competitive or cooperative.
c. Cooperation produces better performance and more open communication than competition.
d. When a competitor and a cooperator meet, the competitor will eventually draw the cooperator into competition.
e. a and b
e. a and b